||Developments in Jazz
- Composer and bandleader Duke Ellington hires saxophonist Ben Webster and records Ko-Ko, Concerto for Cootie, and Cottontail.
- Trumpeter Cootie Williams leaves Ellington's band and is replaced by trumpeter and violinist Ray Nance.
- Vibraphonist Lionel Hampton's big band records Flying Home.
- Nat King Cole's trio records the timely piece, Gone with the Draft.
- Minton's Playhouse in New York becomes a hot spot for jazz, where musicians such as pianist Thelonious Monk, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, and drummer Kenny Clarke are featured.
- The American Society of Composer, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) issues a broadcast ban of ASCAP works, resulting in the growth of rival organization Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI).
- The Soviet Union attacks Finland.
- Germany invades Norway and Denmark.
- Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain.
- Holland and Belgium fall to Germany.
- Italy declares war on Britain and France.
- Germany occupies Paris.
- Duke Ellington's band records composer Billy Strayhorn's Take the 'A' Train, which becomes the band's signature tune.
- Trumpeter Roy Eldridge joins drummer Gene Krupa's orchestra as featured soloist.
- Clarinetist Sidney Bechet plays five different instruments on The Sheik of Araby and Blues of Bechet, using some of the earliest overdubbing techniques.
- Saxophonist Charlie Parker makes his first recordings with Jay McShann’s band and begins participating in the famous Minton's Playhouse jam sessions where bebop is created.
- ASCAP's broadcasting boycott ends.
- Jelly Roll Morton dies.
- Cootie Williams forms his own orchestra, which eventually employs musicians such as Eddie 'Lockjaw' Davis, Charlie Parker and Bud Powell.
- Dizzy Gillespie is fired by Cab Calloway after an altercation involving a knife.
- Germany invades Yugoslavia, Russia, and sends troops to North Africa.
- The British army goes to Libya and Ethiopia.
- Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
- The U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan.
- The U.S. declares war on Germany and Italy.
- Pianist Fats Waller appears at Carnegie Hall.
- Composer Leonard Bernstein performs in Boston as a jazz pianist.
- The American Federation of Musicians bans its members from participating in studio recordings for record companies that fail to pay royalties to performers.
- Trombonist Glenn Miller dissolves his band and enlists in the Air Force where he forms a new band.
- Eighteen-year-old singer Sarah Vaughan wins a talent competition at Harlem's Apollo Theater.
- Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie join pianist Earl Hines band.
- Eddie Condon's integrated band appears on CBS television.
- Billboard magazine publishes the first black record chart under the title "Harlem Hit Parade."
- The U.S. bombs Germany.
- Germany attacks Stalingrad, U.S.S.R.
- Japan wages campaigns in East Indies, Malaya, and Burma.
- Duke Ellington's Orchestra performs Black, Brown, and Beige and New World A’Comin' at Carnegie Hall.
- Pianist Art Tatum establishes a trio with guitarist Tiny Grimes and bassist Slam Stewart.
- Glenn Miller publishes a text-book for arranging music.
- Britain captures Tripoli.
- Germany surrenders at Stalingrad and Tunisia.
- Italian leader Benito Mussolini resigns after the Allied invasion of Sicily.
- The Allies land on mainland Italy.
- Italy turns against Germany.
- The jitterbug dance becomes popular in the U.S.
- Producer Norman Granz initiates the series, "Jazz at the Philharmonic" in Los Angeles.
- Bud Powell urges bandleader Cootie Williams to record Thelonious Monk's 'Round Midnight. This is the first known recording of this song, which has since become the most-recorded jazz standard composed by any jazz musician.
- Thelonious Monk makes his first recordings with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet.
- Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie leave Billy Eckstine's band.
- Trumpeter Miles Davis arrives in New York to study at Juilliard School of Music but promptly withdraws. He complains of the classical / European focus of the school and decides he can learn more from Parker, Gillespie and the NY jazz scene.
- Lester Young is drafted into the army, is voted most popular saxophonist by Down Beat magazine, and appears in the film Jammin' the Blues.
- The American Federation of Musicians lifts the recording ban.
- Glenn Miller disappears in an Air Force flight from London to Paris.
- The siege of Leningrad ends.
- The Allies land on Normandy beaches on what becomes "D-Day."
- An unsuccessful assassination attempt is made on Adolph Hitler.
- Paris and Brussels are liberated.
- The U.S. Army crosses the German border.
- The United Negro College Fund is established.
- Dizzy Gillespie records Be-Bop.
- Charlie Parker hires Miles Davis to replace Dizzy Gillespie at the Three Deuces on 52nd Street, leading Davis to quit school.
- Charlie Parker records Now's The Time, his first session as a leader, with Miles Davis on trumpet and Max Roach on drums.
- Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie play in Los Angeles, helping to establish an interest in bebop.
- Pianist Mary Lou Williams gives the first performance of her Zodiac Suite at New York's Town Hall.
- Warsaw and Budapest fall to the U.S.S.R.
- Cologne falls to the Allies.
- President Franklin Roosevelt dies.
- Italian leader Benito Mussolini is executed; his corpse later hung upside down for public viewing.
- Adolph Hitler commits suicide.
- Berlin is captured by Russian troops.
- German forces surrender.
- The U.S. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
- Japan surrenders.
- Composer Anton Webern is accidentally shot to death by U.S. military policeman in Austria.
- Composer Bela Bartok dies.
- The United Nations is founded.
- Ebony Magazine is founded.
- Harry S. Truman becomes president.
- Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie perform at "Jazz at the Philharmonic" in Los Angeles.
- Charlie Parker performs with Miles Davis in Little Tokyo, Los Angeles.
- Miles Davis records Ornithology and Night in Tunisia with Charlie Parker, and then rejoins Billy Eckstine's band.
- Guitarist Django Reinhardt and violinist Stephane Grappelli are reunited after their wartime separation.
- Dizzy Gillespie forms a big band that includes pianist John Lewis and drummer Kenny Clarke.
- Billie Holiday performs at Town Hall in New York.
- Hungary becomes a republic.
- President Juan Peron assumes power in Argentina.
- Italy becomes a republic.
- Mao Tse-Tung revives the Chinese Civil War.
- The bikini is introduced.
- Louis Armstrong appears at Carnegie Hall with Billie Holiday.
- Miles Davis continues to perform with Charlie Parker at the Three Deuces and makes a series of recordings with Parker.
- Miles Davis makes his first recordings as a leader, featuring Charlie Parker, pianist John Lewis, and drummer Max Roach.
- Charlie Parker records numerous tracks for the Dial and Savoy labels.
- Billie Holiday is convicted for possession of heroin.
- Ella Fitzgerald and Dizzy Gillespie appear at a sold out concert at Carnegie Hall, where Gillespie performs Cubana Be/Cubana Bop.
- Dizzy Gillespie records Manteca, bringing attention to Afro-Cuban jazz.
- Thelonious Monk makes his first recordings as a bandleader for Blue Note. Several of his original compositions are featured, including In Walked Bud, Monk's Mood and Well You Needn't.
- Drummer Art Blakey forms a group that is later to become the Jazz Messengers.
- The Atlantic label is founded.
- Louis Armstrong and Billie Holiday appear in the film New Orleans.
- Chano Pozo introduces Afro-Cuban jazz in New York.
- Crisis occurs in Palestine.
- India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain.
- Communists assume power in Hungary.
- Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American in major league baseball.
- The sound barrier is broken in the U.S.
- The Central Intelligence Agency is created by President Harry Truman.
- The House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigating communism in Hollywood, leading to the blacklisting of ten filmmakers.
- The first microwave oven is introduced.
- Dizzy Gillespie brings bebop to Europe, performing at the Nice Jazz Festival in France along with Louis Armstrong and others.
- Gillespie's Cuban drummer, Chano Pozo, is shot dead in Harlem.
- Billie Holiday performs twice at Carnegie Hall, both times breaking box-office records.
- Columbia Records introduces the first long-playing vinyl discs.
- Miles Davis forms a nonet which appears for two weeks at the Royal Roost as a replacement for pianist Count Basie's band.
- Saxophonist Ben Webster rejoins Duke Ellington's band.
- Mahatma Ghandi is assassinated in New Delhi.
- Communists gain control of Czechoslovakia.
- Britain abandons Palestine.
- Israel is founded.
- The U.S.S.R. isolates Berlin.
- Writer George Orwell's 1984 is published.
- South Africa establishes the apartheid system.
- In the U.S., a judge rules that it is illegal for homeowners to refuse to sell to black buyers.
- Miles Davis and composer/arranger Gil Evans record Birth of the Cool.
- The first Festival International de Jazz is held in Paris, featuring Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Sidney Bechet, Miles Davis, Kenny Clark, and others.
- Pianist Lennie Tristano records early examples of free jazz improvisation.
- Norman Granz pairs Canadian pianist Oscar Peterson with bassist Ray Brown at a "Jazz at the Philharmonic" concert at Carnegie Hall.
- Pianist Dave Brubeck records in San Francisco with his piano trio.
- The club Birdland, named after Charlie "Bird" Parker, opens on Broadway.
- Charlie Parker appears at Carnegie Hall; the same year he also records Charlie Parker with Strings.
- Stan Kenton performs progressive jazz at Carnegie Hall with a 25-piece orchestra.
- The Republic of Erie is established.
- The West German Federal Republic is established.
- The first passenger jet aircraft makes a flight.
- The People's Republic of China is founded by Chairman Mao Tse-Tung.
- The East German Democratic Republic is established.
- Civil War ends in Greece.
- Vietnam achieves independence from France.