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8

Jazz Today, Jazz Tomorrow (1990 - 2000 +)

footnotes

7. all styles of jazz from Dixieland to contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

8. sampling consists of digitally recording acoustic, synthesized, or previously recorded sounds for the purpose of electronically manipulating them (e.g., changing pitch, changing timbre, looping them, etc.); in acid jazz, entire musical phrases from old albums are often sampled then resynthesized as the basis for new recordings

9. looping is the continuous repetition of a musical phrase manipulated by electronic means; in acid jazz, the accompaniment portion of old records are often sampled then looped, providing the background for new recordings (over which are placed other synthesized sounds, raps, and jazz improvisations)

10. DIVA is an all-female big band

11. IHJ = selection is found on Willie Hill’s The Instrumental History of Jazz; Web = selection is found on the Monk Institute Jazz in America National Curriculum web site (www.jazzinamerica.org)

I. Jazz Today (1990-2000)


A. Basically Two Camps

   

Anything Goes vs. The Traditionalists 

      

1.

Anything Goes - no labels, no particular preconceived style, just music containing improvisation that could not have manifested without the jazz tradition. 

            

a.

elements of Swing, Hard Bop, Cool, Avant Garde, and Fusion 

            

b.

elements of classical music, especially 20th century techniques 

            

c.

elements of world music (all ethnicities, especially Latin, Eastern, and African) 

      

2.

Mainstream Jazz (AKA straight ahead jazz) 

            

a.

jazz manifesting directly from the “jazz” tradition (i.e., a more narrowly defined version of jazz tradition, one that excludes Avant Garde, Fusion, and any jazz pioneered after 1963), most resembling the Hard Bop sensibility 

            

b.

seeks to identify the jazz masters of the past and explore their genius, focusing on Blues, Swing, and Bebop 

            

c.

the Retro movement has been under the tutelage of trumpet player Wynton Marsalis 


B. New Offshoots

      

1.

M-Base 

            

a.

macro-based jazz, i.e., broad based 

            

b.

harmonic and structural elements of the late 1960s avant garde combined with rhythms and grooves of funk and hip hop; “free funk” 

      

2.

Acid Jazz 

            

a.

based on jazz-funk recordings of the 1960s and early ‘70s, classic R&B, and hip hop 

            

b.

much of acid jazz depends upon electronically excerpting portions of old records using sampling8 and looping9 techniques 

            

c.

often performed and recorded with Rap vocals 

            

d.

often features long improvisations over sampled vamps 

            

e.

live performances often feature musicians (usually horn players) along with DJs 


C. Women in Jazz

      

1.

in the past, women in jazz have made their greatest impact in the vocal jazz arena (e.g., Betty Carter, Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Carmen McRae, Sarah Vaughan) 

      

2.

instrumental jazz, from its earliest roots, has been primarily male dominated 

      

3.

past female contributors to the instrumental jazz tradition include such pioneers as Lillian Hardin Armstrong (piano), Dorothy Donegan, (piano), Marian McPartland (piano), Shirley Scott (organ), and Mary Lou Williams (piano) 

      

4.

Marian McPartland currently hosts a national radio show on NPR entitled Piano Jazz 

      

5.

today, more and more women are becoming involved in jazz, both as instrumental performers and composer/arrangers 

      

6.

a well-known contemporary all-female 15-piece big band, DIVA has been recording and touring the world since the early 1990s, breaking down sexual stereotypes along the way 


D. Listening Examples

   

"Dolphy’s Dance," Geri Allen (IHJ), and/or "Something’s Coming," DIVA10(Web), and/or "PanaMonk," Danilo Perez (Web)11 

Audio Snippets

speakerspacer PanaMonk - Danilo Perez


E. Play

   

selected favorite jazz recordings brought in by students 

the thelonious monk institute of jazz
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