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  1. By the end of the 1920’s, jazz was developing in two complimentary directions:
    1. emphasis on the soloist and the ensemble
    2. emphasis on the conductor and the ensemble
    3. emphasis on the union and the musicians
    4. emphasis on the music and the composer
    5. emphasis on the payroll and the amount of tickets sold

  2. In order to accommodate more sophisticated music and more musicians in an ensemble,
    1. it was necessary to find larger dance halls
    2. it was necessary to use written arrangements
    3. it was necessary to hire three musicians per part
    4. it was necessary to employ polyphonic collective improvisation
    5. it was necessary to stop all improvisation

  3. During the transition from Dixieland to Swing, jazz witnessed
    1. an increase in collective improvisation
    2. a decrease in arranged tunes
    3. an elimination of improvisation
    4. an elimination of the rhythm section
    5. an increase in written arrangements

  4. The Swing Era was characterized by
    1. a decrease in the size of the ensemble
    2. an increase in the number of piano players being used
    3. a decrease in popularity of jazz
    4. an increase in the size of the ensemble
    5. an increase in the use of parade bands

  5. The Swing Era brought with it a new breed of jazz musicians. Many were
    1. rich and famous
    2. unable to read music
    3. had never played other styles of music
    4. unable to improvise
    5. formally educated (e.g., conservatory trained)

  6. The musicians of the Swing Era represented a cross-fertilization between
    1. those who could improvise and those who could not
    2. those who owned their own recording companies and those who did not
    3. music readers and improvisers
    4. teachers and performers
    5. Europeans and Americans

  7. Jazz’s predominant geographical movement was from New Orleans to Chicago to
    1. Nashville
    2. New York
    3. Los Angeles
    4. Boston
    5. Miami

  8. The city that became the center of the music world during the Swing Era was
    1. New York
    2. New Orleans
    3. Kansas City
    4. Chicago
    5. Boston

  9. The Swing Era was from
    1. 1920-1930
    2. 1925-1935
    3. 1935-1945
    4. 1940-1950
    5. 1945-1955

  10. With the advent of the big band came
    1. written instead of improvised solos
    2. more collective improvisation
    3. longer tunes with simpler harmonies than those of the Dixieland era (i.e., simpler chords)
    4. greater harmonic sophistication than that of the Dixieland era (i.e., more complex chords)
    5. the musicians’ taking more liberties with the music

  11. Jazz became more popular during the Swing Era because
    1. the musicians were better
    2. people could watch the bands on television
    3. everyone loved the music of Scott Joplin
    4. people bought the CDs and listened at home
    5. the radio made jazz more accessible

  12. The typical big band has
    1. 2 sections
    2. 3 sections
    3. 4 sections
    4. 5 sections
    5. 6 sections

  13. The sections included in the big band are
    1. sax section, trumpet section, trombone section, rhythm section
    2. rhythm section, woodwind section, drum section
    3. brass section, woodwind section, percussion section
    4. brass section, woodwind section, percussion section, string section
    5. lead guitar, rhythm guitar, keyboards, bass, and drums

  14. Call and response is
    1. the band leader asking the audience what it wants to hear followed by its response
    2. the band leader responding to a call from a booking agent
    3. each section in the band “talking” (through their instruments) back and forth to each other
    4. asking the arranger how something is to be played
    5. simple musical phrases played over and over

  15. Simple musical phrases played over and over again are called
    1. short melodies
    2. riffs
    3. improvisation
    4. repeated notes
    5. call and response

  16. The rhythm section is comprised of
    1. two alto saxes, two tenor saxes, and one baritone saxophone
    2. piano, bass, guitar, and drums
    3. bass, banjo, piano, and clarinet
    4. drums and percussion
    5. snare drum, bass drum, ride cymbal, and high hat

  17. The primary function of the bass in the Swing Era was to
    1. play a steady bass line either two or four notes per measure
    2. improvise short solos
    3. play only when the piano was taking a solo
    4. play long, rhythmically complex melodies
    5. comp

  18. Swing differed from Dixieland in which of the following ways?
    1. Swing was louder and easier to march to
    2. Swing used fewer written arrangements
    3. Swing used more solo improvisation and less collective improvisation
    4. Swing utilized more ragtime tunes
    5. banjo replaced the need for the guitar

  19. One of the important figures in the Swing era was
    1. Louis Armstrong
    2. Jelly Roll Morton
    3. Charlie Parker
    4. Count Basie
    5. Grover Washington

  20. Duke Ellington played
    1. drums
    2. alto sax
    3. trumpet
    4. tenor sax
    5. piano

  21. One of the most important combos in the Swing Era was the
    1. Hot Five
    2. Duke Ellington Orchestra
    3. Benny Goodman Quartet
    4. Swing Sets
    5. Dave Clark Five

  22. One of the most important tenor saxophonist in the Swing Era was
    1. Michael Brecker
    2. Coleman Hawkins
    3. Count Basie
    4. Wayne Shorter
    5. Johnny Hodges

  23. During the Great Depression, African Americans
    1. fled the cities of the North and moved to the rural South to feed their families
    2. enjoyed greater prosperity in the South than they had in the 1920s
    3. were hired on an equal basis with white workers in northern industrial centers
    4. had a higher unemployment rate than white Americans
    5. blamed the depression on the Democratic Party and voted to elect Republican candidates to the Congress

  24. Which of the following measures did African Americans consider to be the most important step taken during the Roosevelt administration?
    1. The enactment of the National Recovery Administration.
    2. The establishment of farm relief associations.
    3. Executive Order 8802 establishing the Fair Employment Practices Commission.
    4. The integration of camps established by the Civilian Conservation Corps.
    5. Desegregation of the armed services.

  25. Benny Goodman, in the 1930s, became known as
    1. the "King of Swing"
    2. the "High Prince of Bebop"
    3. the "Wizard of the Clarinet"
    4. Jazz's "Cool Cat"
    5. "Chicago's Music Man"


Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. By the end of the 1920’s, jazz was developing in two complimentary directions: emphasis on the _________________________ and emphasis on the __________________________.

  2. Dixieland jazz was more __________________________ while big band jazz was more homophonic

  3. In order to accommodate more sophisticated music and more musicians in an ensemble __________________________________ became necessary.

  4. The __________________________, the person who wrote the arrangements, was an integral component of the Swing Era.

  5. The ensemble size of the big band in the 30s and 40s usually ranged from ________ to ________ members.

  6. Many of the jazz musicians of the Swing Era were formally __________________________ in conservatories.

  7. The Swing era represented a cross-fertilization between those musicians who could __________________________ and those who could __________________________.

  8. Jazz moved geographically from New Orleans to Chicago to __________________________, the music center of the world.

  9. While the Swing era was mostly known for its big bands, __________________________, such as the Benny Goodman Quartet, were part of the scene a well.

  10. The basic dates of the Swing Era wenT From __________ to __________.

  11. Jazz became more popular because of its accessibility via the _________________________ and _________________________.

  12. Jazz basically moved from the improvised polyphony of the Dixieland bands to the more arranged _________________________ of the big bands.

  13. The typical big band has ______ sections.

  14. The sections of a typical big band consist of the _________________________ section, _________________________ section _________________________ section and _________________________ section.

  15. The rhythm section consists of _________________________, _________________________, _________________________ and _________________________.

  16. A technique used in the big bands simulating the different instrumental sections “talking” back and forth was referred to as _________________________ and _________________________.

  17. A simple musical phrase played over and over again is called a __________.

  18. The big band’s primary function was to play for _________________________.

  19. Jazz’s first important interracial combo was __________________________________________________.

  20. ________________________________________ was dubbed the King of Swing.

  21. Jazz’s social liberalism was represented by racial _________________________in several important swing bands.

  22. Jazz increased appreciation for the cultural achievements of ________________________________________.

  23. The predominant geographical movement of jazz was from _________________________ to _________________________ to _________________________.

  24. Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Art Tatum all played _________________________(what instrument?).

  25. Two famous tenor saxophonists from the Swing Era were _________________________ and _________________________.


Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
What were the cultural implications of Swing after the Great Depression of 1929? How did swing help America through this difficult time? What was the effect of Swing during World War II?

Essay question #2
In spite of the Great Depression, jazz flourished. Why? What was it that Swing offered that Americans needed? What invention helped spread the popularity of jazz and why?

Essay question #3
The timing in America was right for the growth of Swing. What was it about swing that made it popular to Americans? What were the performance opportunities for Swing and how did this help spread its growth?

Essay question #4
How did Benny Goodman play an integral part in the popularity of swing? Why was he dubbed the King of Swing?

Essay question #5
How did the growth of swing affect race relations? What effect did it have on racial integration? How did jazz bring help bring the African American and European American communities together?

Please answer true or false to the following questions.
1. By the end of the 1920’s, jazz was developing in two complimentary directions: soloist and ensemble. T F
2. The emphasis at the end of the 1920’s was placed on the composer and the conductor. T F
3. In collective improvisation, the basic structure of the tune needs to remain simple and the instrumentation small. T F
4. In order to accommodate more sophisticated music and more musicians in an ensemble, more collective improvisation was necessary. T F
5. The arranger became very important during the swing era. T F
6. Written arrangements usually still provided space for individual soloists to improvise. T F
7. The ensemble size during the Swing Era remained small. T F
8. During the 1930s and early ‘40s the Swing era was characterized by the big band. T F
9. The size of the ensemble in a big band was usually 8 to 11 members. T F
10. Many jazz musicians of the Swing Era were formally educated. T F
11. During the Swing Era there was a mixture of music readers and improvisers. T F
12. Jazz moved geographically from New Orleans to Boston to New York during the Swing Era. T F
13. The first big band appeared in 1917. T F
14. The Swing Era was from 1935-1945. T F
15. Jazz became more popular during the Swing Era because of television. T F
16. The spread of recordings made jazz more accessible to the American public. T F
17. From the Dixieland Era to the Swing Era jazz moved from improvised polyphony to homophony. T F
18. The typical big band has 5 sections. T F
19. The typical big band uses trumpets, trombones, saxes, piano, bass, guitar, and drums. T F
20. Polyphony is two or more simultaneously played melodies. T F
21. African Americans rejected the Democratic Party in the election of 1932 and voted in large numbers to reelect President Herbert Hoover. T F
22. During World War II, the "Double-V" symbolized African Americans' determination to defeat the Axis powers in Europe and Asia and end segregation in America. T F
23. Although Lester Young played a number of instruments, he was noted for expert ability on the drums. T F
24. Lester Young played with a number of popular bands including King Oliver and Count Basie. T F
25. Benny Goodman was among the first to form a racially integrated band. T F
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. ballrooms  

A. Roseland, Savoy, Cotton Club  

1. _____

2. written  

B. formally educated  

2. _____

3. collective improvisation  

C. Benny Goodman Trio  

3. _____

4. first important interracial group  

D. 15-18 members  

4. _____

5. big band  

E. arrangements  

5. _____

6. swing musicians  

F. call and response  

6. _____

7. predominant geographical movement of jazz  

G. brass section  

7. _____

8. recording companies  

H. Dixieland  

8. _____

9. 1935-1945  

I. bass  

9. _____

10. swing music  

J. polyphony  

10. _____

11. melody with chordal accompaniment  

K. big band leader  

11. _____

12. four sections (saxes, trumpets, trombones, rhythm)  

L. dance music  

12. _____

13. common big band technique  

M. Duke Ellington  

13. _____

14. piano, bass, guitar, drums  

N. Benny Goodman  

14. _____

15. trumpet and trombone section   

O. The Kansas City Seven  

15. _____

16. drums  

P. New York  

16. _____

17. walking  

Q. tenor saxophone  

17. _____

18. two or more simultaneously played melodies  

R. homophony  

18. _____

19. Count Basie  

S. New Orleans, Chicago, New York  

19. _____

20. eminent composer and big band leader  

T. Swing Era  

20. _____

21. crucial to jazz's popularity  

U. Coleman Hawkins  

21. _____

22. "King of Swing"  

V. big band rhythm section  

22. _____

23. Count Basie's small group   

W. radio  

23. _____

24. tenor saxophone  

X. typical big band instrumentation  

24. _____

25. Lester Young  

Y. swung, emphasizing 2nd and 4th beat of each measure  

25. _____

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