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  1. Free Jazz came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1949 - 1960
    2. 1959 - 1970
    3. 1969 - 1980
    4. 1979 - 1990
    5. 1989 - 2000

  2. Free Jazz compositions were (are) primarily based on:
    1. predetermined chord progressions
    2. written arrangements
    3. standards
    4. sound
    5. bebop compositions

  3. Free Jazz got its name from
    1. jazz concerts that were provided free of charge to the public
    2. the freed slaves who developed this style of jazz
    3. Free Jazz musicians’ sensibility of not being restricted to following a chord progression, hence, they were (are) “free” to play whatever they want
    4. all of the above
    5. none of the above

  4. For the most part, Free Jazz is
    1. tonal
    2. atonal
    3. not generally played by traditional jazz instruments
    4. mostly vocal
    5. one of the more popular styles of jazz today

  5. Atonal means
    1. being able to atone for one’s sins or wrongdoings, including musical mistakes
    2. having one tone
    3. having multiple tones
    4. having no tones
    5. NOT based on a tonal system like most musics listened to in America (e.g., classical music, pop, rock, country, etc.)

  6. As far as jazz styles go, most people generally find Free Jazz to be
    1. easy to listen to
    2. difficult to listen to
    3. weird
    4. their favorite style of jazz
    5. B and C

  7. Most Free Jazz features
    1. written arrangements
    2. collective improvisation
    3. improvised solos one at a time
    4. intricate preconceived chord progressions
    5. bands with no rhythm sections

  8. Modal Jazz tunes are songs
    1. that are based on a chord progression containing many chords that change quickly (e.g., each chord one measure long)
    2. that are based on one chord or a chord progression containing very few chords that change slowly (e.g., each chord eight measures long)
    3. that express a particular mood (AKA mode), e.g., good mood (mode), bad mood (mode), etc.
    4. that are based on just one or very few modes (scales) so the soloist can concentrate on improvising using just one mode (scale) for a long time
    5. B and D

  9. The direct precursor of Free Jazz was
    1. Swing
    2. Bebop
    3. Cool Jazz
    4. Hard Bop
    5. Modal Jazz

  10. The most important Modal Jazz recording of all time is Miles Davis’
    1. Birth of the Cool
    2. Bitches Brew
    3. Kind of Blue
    4. The Shape of Jazz to Come
    5. Time Out

  11. One of the most important Free Jazz artists was (is)
    1. Dave Brubeck
    2. Coleman Hawkins
    3. George Coleman
    4. Ornette Coleman
    5. Charlie Parker

  12. Ornette Coleman’s primary instrument was
    1. piano
    2. bass
    3. drums
    4. saxophone
    5. trumpet

  13. 1959 is considered jazz’s breakthrough year to the modern era. Which of the following albums was NOT released in 1959?
    1. Giant Steps (John Coltrane)
    2. Kind of Blue (Miles Davis)
    3. Bitches Brew (Miles Davis)
    4. The Shape of Jazz to Come (Ornette Coleman)
    5. Time Out (Dave Brubeck)

  14. Regarding Free Jazz’s cultural implications,
    1. Free jazz represented the loosening of standards of behavior in the turbulent 1960s
    2. Free jazz was predominantly played by African American musicians and often expressed anger and dissatisfaction regarding the lack of civil rights in American society
    3. Free jazz was primarily an East Coast, urban (e.g., New York) phenomenon
    4. all of the above
    5. none of the above

  15. Fusion came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1949 - 1970
    2. 1959 - 1980
    3. 1969 - 1990
    4. 1979 - 2000
    5. 1989 - today

  16. Fusion Jazz (AKA Jazz Fusion or just Fusion) is a blending (fusion) of
    1. jazz and rock
    2. Bebop and Cool Jazz
    3. Hard Bop and Modal Jazz
    4. Bebop and Hip Hop
    5. Modal and Free Jazz

  17. From jazz, Fusion got its
    1. electronic instruments
    2. simple harmony
    3. sophisticated improvisations
    4. complex interplay among the musicians
    5. C and D

  18. From rock, Fusion got its
    1. electronic instruments
    2. simple harmony
    3. sophisticated improvisations
    4. complex interplay among the musicians
    5. A and B

  19. Fusion came about, in part, because
    1. of the discovery of nuclear fusion
    2. rock musicians wanted to capitalize on the popular appeal of jazz
    3. jazz musicians wanted to capitalize on the popular appeal of rock
    4. diehard Hard Bop fans wanted something new, something they could call “real” jazz
    5. all of the above

  20. Miles Davis was at the forefront of
    1. Cool Jazz
    2. Hard Bop
    3. Modal Jazz
    4. Fusion
    5. all of the above

  21. Smooth Jazz
    1. is a simpler, easier-to-listen-to, and more commercial form of Fusion than true Jazz Fusion
    2. became popular in the mid 1970s and 1980s and is still quite popular today
    3. was made popular by such artists as George Benson, Dave Grusin, David Sanborn, Grover Washington, Jr., and Spyro Gyra
    4. all of the above
    5. A and B

  22. The Civil Rights Movement represented the
    1. desire to pass the legal doctrine “Separate but Equal”
    2. political, legal, and social struggle for African Americans to gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality
    3. the desire to encourage segregation
    4. civility among jazz musicians who played different styles (e.g., Bebop musicians and Free Jazz musicians)
    5. civility between classical and jazz musicians

  23. The arrest of civil rights activist _________________________________________ in late 1955 for refusing to move to the back of a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama, tested the scope of desegregation laws.
    1. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    2. Linda Brown (of Brown v. the Board of Education)
    3. Rosa Parks
    4. Homer Adolph Plessy (of Plessy v. Ferguson)
    5. John Howard Ferguson (of Plessy v. Ferguson)

  24. In its landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, the Supreme Court
    1. supported the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of Separate but Equal
    2. struck down the legal foundation of segregation, concluding that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal “has no place” in America
    3. decided that all public schools were to have jazz education
    4. praised those states which had declared the intention “to resist forced integration by any lawful means”
    5. made racial discrimination in public places, such as theaters, restaurants and hotels, illegal; it also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities

  25. On August 28, 1963, more than 200,000 Americans gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. to urge civil rights for African Americans and hear the famous “I Have a Dream” speech delivered by
    1. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    2. Linda Brown (of Brown v. the Board of Education)
    3. Rosa Parks
    4. Homer Adolph Plessy (of Plessy v. Ferguson)
    5. John Howard Ferguson (of Plessy v. Ferguson)

Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. Free Jazz came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years: __________________.
  2. Unlike Bebop and other more conventional jazz styles, Free Jazz compositions were NOT based on predetermined _______________________________________.
  3. Free Jazz compositions were (are) primarily based on:___________.
  4. Free Jazz (for the most part) is ___________, that is, the music is not based on a “tonal system” like most other music (pop, rock, other styles of jazz, classical music, etc.), making it sound “weird” to many new listeners.
  5. Unlike Bebop in which there is one soloist at a time one right after the other, Free jazz involves more _________________________ ________________________________________________, that is, everyone improvising at the same time, continuously reacting to each other.
  6. The primary precursor of Free Jazz was ______________ Jazz, that is, jazz that was based on a predetermined mode (i.e., a particular musical scale) or series of a few different modes each lasting for a long time (e.g., eight measures).
  7. One of the most important jazz albums of all time is Kind of Blue recorded by _______________________.
  8. One of the most important Free Jazz artists was (is) saxophonist _______________________________________________ who recorded the landmark album The Shape of Jazz to Come.
  9. Free jazz was predominantly played by _______________________ _________________________________ musicians who, through the music, often expressed anger and dissatisfaction regarding the lack of civil rights in American society.
  10. Fusion came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years: _________________.
  11. Fusion is the blending (fusion) of jazz and _________________.
  12. From jazz, Fusion got its ________________________________________________.
  13. From rock, Fusion got its ________________________________________________.
  14. Fusion came about, in part, because jazz musicians wanted to capitalize on the popular appeal of _________.
  15. More rock fans supported Fusion than ____________ fans as many of the latter didn’t consider Fusion real ___________.
  16. One of the first and most important Fusion albums of all time is Bitches Brew recorded by _______________________________.
  17. The style of Fusion which is simpler, easier-to-listen-to, and more commercial than original Jazz Fusion is called ____________________________ which became popular in the mid 1970s and 1980 and is still popular today.
  18. Herbie Hancock and Chick Corea play what instrument? ___________.
  19. Weather Report and the Yellowjackets were (are) both _____________________________ groups.
  20. In the 1980s, David Sanborn, George Benson, Dave Grusin, Grover Washington, Jr., and the group Spyro Grya were mostly known for playing what style of jazz? _______________________________.
  21. A young upwardly mobile professional person, particularly someone in the 1980s under 40 who prospered financially and was a member of the “me generation,” was (is) often referred to as a ____________.
  22. _______________ jazz grew in popularity at a time when the major recording companies and the business community at large were particularly focused on mass product distribution, consumerism, and an emphasis on large profit margins.
  23. Regarding cultural implications of Free Jazz, many artists were concerned with _________________ rights and the _______________ War.
  24. The Second Reconstruction period, lasting from 1954 to 1968, helped to ___________________ the South and bring African Americans into the nation’s political process.
  25. The arrest of _______________________ in 1955 for refusing to move to the back of a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama helped lead the way to the desegregation of public transportation.


Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
Discuss Free Jazz. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

Essay question #2
Discuss Jazz Fusion. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

Essay question #3
What are hippies and yuppies? How did they help define their respective generations?

Essay question #4
Who was Rosa Parks? What impact did she have on the civil rights movement?

Essay question #5
Give a brief overview of the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Is their racial equality today? Explain.

Please answer true or false to the following questions.
1. Free Jazz was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1969 – 1990. T F
2. Unlike previous styles of jazz whose compositions (songs) were based on a series of predetermined chords, Free Jazz compositions were not based on a series of predetermined chords T F
3. Free Jazz musicians experimented with making all kinds of sounds on their instruments, including squeaks and squawks. T F
4. Free Jazz got its name because most of the concerts in which this music was performed were free to the public (hence, “free” jazz). T F
5. Free Jazz for the most part was atonal, that is, the music was not based on a “tonal system” like most other music (pop, rock, other styles of jazz, classical music, etc.) listened to in America. T F
6. The general performance format of a Free Jazz composition was (is) each musician, in turn, soloing for as many choruses as desired. T F
7. The primary precursor of Free Jazz was Bebop. T F
8. Like Dixieland, Free Jazz’s primary feature was collective improvisation. T F
9. Like Bebop and Hard Bop, Modal Jazz is based on a progression of rapidly changing chords. T F
10. One of the most important Free Jazz albums in jazz history is Kind of Blue, recorded by Ornette Coleman. T F
11. One of the most important Modal Jazz albums in jazz history is The Shape of Jazz to Come, recorded by Miles Davis. T F
12. Regarding cultural implications, Free Jazz, in part, represented the loosening of standards of behavior in the 1960s. T F
13. Like Cool Jazz, Free Jazz was primarily a West Coast phenomenon T F
14. Fusion was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1959 – 1967. T F
15. Jazz Fusion is primarily a blending (fusion) of Bebop and Cool Jazz. T F
16. From jazz, Fusion got its sophistication and complexity: sophisticated improvisations and complex interplay among the musicians, respectively. T F
17. From rock music, Fusion got its power, rhythm, and simplicity: electronic instruments (i.e., electric guitars, basses, and keyboard synthesizers), rock rhythms (i.e., straight -- not swung -- eighth notes), and simple harmony (i.e., often just long one- or two-chord vamps), respectively. T F
18. Fusion came about, in part, because jazz musicians wanted to capitalize on the popular appeal of rock music. T F
19. Miles Davis was at the forefront of the Hard Bop, Cool, Modal, and Fusion jazz movements, ever changing his style and paving the way for each of these genres. T F
20. One of the most important Fusion Jazz albums in jazz history is Time Out, recorded by Miles Davis. T F
21. The simpler, more commercial form of Fusion made popular in the 1970s and 1980s (that is still popular today) is called Smooth Jazz. T F
22. Weather Report and the Yellowjackets were (are) popular Free Jazz groups. T F
23. A young upwardly mobile professional person, particularly someone in the 1980s under 40 who prospered financially and was a member of the “me generation,” was (is) often referred to as a “yuppie.” T F
24. The long haired, “flower-power” rebellious youth of the 1960s and early ‘70s who expressed their desire for change by living communal or nomadic lifestyles, renouncing corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, and criticizing American middle class values, were known as “hippies.” T F
25. The arrest of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1955 for refusing to move to the back of a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama, helped pave the way for the desegregation of city transportation. T F
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. Free Jazz dates  

A. public transportation desegregation  

1. _____

2. Free Jazz sensibility  

B. based on a very few scales, each lasting a long time  

2. _____

3. atonal  

C. important Jazz Fusion album  

3. _____

4. collective improvisation  

D. struggle to bring racial equality to all  

4. _____

5. Dixieland, Swing, Bebop, Cool, Hard Bop  

E. Giant Steps  

5. _____

6. hippie  

F. long-haired, 1960s rebellious youth  

6. _____

7. yuppie  

G. easy-to-listen-to, commercial form of Fusion  

7. _____

8. Vietnam War dates (American involvement)  

H. 1980s young urban professional  

8. _____

9. Brown v. Board of Education  

I. not tonal (i.e., not based on a "tonal system")  

9. _____

10. Plessy v. Ferguson  

J. public school desegregation  

10. _____

11. Bitches Brew  

K. 1959 - 1970  

11. _____

12. civil rights movement  

L. had dream of civil rights for all  

12. _____

13. Fusion dates  

M. 1955 - 1968  

13. _____

14. Fusion  

N. Time Out  

14. _____

15. Smooth Jazz  

O. blending of jazz and rock  

15. _____

16. Modal Jazz  

P. based on chord progressions  

16. _____

17. Civil Rights Movement dates  

Q. based on sound, not chord progressions  

17. _____

18. Weather Report  

R. separate but equal  

18. _____

19. Ornette Coleman  

S. Smooth Jazz artist  

19. _____

20. Martin Luther King, Jr.  

T. Kind of Blue  

20. _____

21. David Sanborn  

U. 1965 - 1973  

21. _____

22. Miles Davis  

V. fusion group  

22. _____

23. John Coltrane  

W. 1969 - 1990  

23. _____

24. Dave Brubeck  

X. The Shape of Jazz to Come  

24. _____

25. Rosa Parks  

Y. improvising simultaneously  

25. _____

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