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  1. Today’s jazz artists are basically going in one of three directions:
    1. Dixieland, Swing, or Bebop
    2. Swing, Bebop, or Cool
    3. Bebop, Cool, or Hard Bop
    4. traditional, contemporary mainstream, or “anything goes”
    5. Fusion, pop, or country

  2. Traditionalists are performing jazz mainly associated with
    1. Free Jazz
    2. the blues, Swing, Bebop, and Hard Bop (i.e., excluding Free Jazz and Fusion)
    3. Fusion
    4. Cool Jazz
    5. contemporary mainstream

  3. “Jazz purists” are
    1. jazz traditionalists who believe that the bebop-based jazz they play and/or listen to is “real jazz,” not the various hybrids and “add-ons” (according to them) that occurred in the 1960s and since
    2. jazz musicians who play with a pure, almost classical sound (e.g., Paul Desmond, Lee Konitz)
    3. musicians who only play jazz, regardless of style, and do not play classical or pop music
    4. all of the above
    5. none of the above

  4. The internationally acclaimed trumpeter currently at the forefront of the “jazz purist” movement is
    1. Miles Davis
    2. Terence Blanchard
    3. Herbie Hancock
    4. Dave Holland
    5. Wynton Marsalis

  5. Contemporary mainstream jazz artists are heavily influenced by
    1. blues sensibilities
    2. Hard Bop sensibilities
    3. Free Jazz sensibilities
    4. Fusion sensibilities
    5. pop music

  6. Which one of the following is a contemporary mainstream jazz artist?
    1. Miles Davis
    2. Terence Blanchard
    3. Dave Liebman
    4. David Sanborn
    5. Wynton Marsalis

  7. Today’s “anything goes” jazz artists are influenced by
    1. all styles of jazz
    2. 20th and 21st century classical music
    3. world music (e.g., music from South America, Asia, etc.)
    4. pop music
    5. all of the above

  8. Which one of the following is a contemporary “anything goes” jazz artist?
    1. Miles Davis
    2. Terence Blanchard
    3. Dave Liebman
    4. David Sanborn
    5. Wynton Marsalis

  9. Today, big bands (i.e., 17-18 pieces)
    1. are very few and far between (i.e., only a few exist)
    2. exist mostly in schools (middle schools, high schools, and universities)
    3. exist mostly in the professional ranks
    4. exist equally in schools and in the professional ranks
    5. exist neither in schools nor in the professional ranks

  10. Today’s big band repertoire consists of
    1. traditional big band arrangements from the Swing Era
    2. contemporary arrangements of Bebop, Cool, Hard Bop, and pop tunes
    3. arrangements of new compositions
    4. arrangements of standards and jazz classics
    5. all of the above

  11. Besides the traditional "jazz instruments" (saxophone, trumpet, trombone, piano, bass, drums, guitar, human voice), jazz today is increasingly being performed on such instruments as the
    1. violin and cello
    2. hammer and saw
    3. washboard and gutbucket bass
    4. all of the above
    5. A and C

  12. An exceptional jazz violinist on the scene today is
    1. Regina Carter
    2. Yo-Yo Ma
    3. Stephane Grappelli
    4. Itzhak Perlman
    5. all of the above

  13. In the past, instrumental jazz has been primarily a(n)_________________ art form; however, today more and more ___________ are studying and performing jazz and becoming an integral part of the jazz scene.
    1. male dominated; women
    2. female dominated, men
    3. European American; African Americans
    4. aural; visual artists and actors
    5. academic; self-taught musicians

  14. One of the top female jazz trumpet players on the scene today is
    1. Regina Carter
    2. Ingrid Jensen
    3. Diana Krall
    4. Jane Monhiet
    5. all of the above

  15. The most notable all-female professional big band on the jazz scene today is
    1. The Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra
    2. The Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra
    3. The International Sweethearts of Rhythm
    4. The Hour of Charm Orchestra
    5. Diva

  16. While jazz vocalists have always been an important part of jazz's rich history, today’s vocal jazz is
    1. an integral part of most university jazz programs
    2. often credited with introducing jazz to many who might not otherwise have given jazz a chance, i.e., because there are words (lyrics), more people can relate to vocal jazz than instrumental jazz
    3. not as difficult as instrumental jazz
    4. all of the above
    5. A and B

  17. Popular jazz vocalists on the scene today include
    1. Regina Carter
    2. Ingrid Jensen
    3. Diana Krall
    4. all of the above
    5. A and C

  18. Today jazz has become part of American education, borne out by the fact that
    1. jazz is found in classes of all levels from elementary school to college
    2. it is now possible to earn a bachelors, masters, and even a doctoral degree in Jazz Studies in many of America’s most prestigious universities
    3. organizations such as the International Association for Jazz Education, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz have national jazz outreach programs that bring jazz into schools throughout the country
    4. all of the above
    5. A and C

  19. Today, perhaps more than any other art form, jazz celebrates America’s
    1. diversity
    2. capitalism
    3. partisanism
    4. classism
    5. conservatism

  20. Jazz in the future is likely to include:
    1. traditional, straight-ahead, contemporary mainstream, and acoustic jazz
    2. big bands
    3. new styles of jazz that will include more 20th and 21st century classical music and world music
    4. new styles of jazz that will incorporate the latest in technology (computers, electronic instruments, etc.)
    5. all of the above

  21. Regarding media for recordings, which of the following is in chronological order
    1. piano rolls, 78s, LPs, cassette tapes, CDs, MP3s
    2. piano rolls, LPs, 78s, cassette tapes, CDs, MP3s
    3. piano rolls, cassette tapes, 78s, LPs, MP3s, CDs,
    4. 78s, LPs, piano rolls, cassette tapes, CDs, MP3s
    5. 78s, LPs, cassette tapes, CDs, MP3s, piano rolls,

  22. To increase the number of African Americans in education and government employment, US federal and state governments in the 1960s began a policy known as
    1. civil rights
    2. G.I. Bill of Rights
    3. welfare-to-work
    4. affirmative action
    5. the equal rights amendment (ERA)

  23. The highly acclaimed contemporary jazz pianist who has been a part of the international jazz scene since the 1960s (when he was a member of the Miles Davis Quintet), and is currently the Chairman of the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz, is
    1. Chick Corea
    2. Joshua Redman
    3. Herbie Hancock
    4. Terence Blanchard
    5. Wynton Marsalis

  24. The highly acclaimed jazz trumpeter who has been a part of the international jazz scene since the 1980s, and is currently the Artistic Director for Jazz at Lincoln Center, is
    1. Chick Corea
    2. Joshua Redman
    3. Herbie Hancock
    4. Terence Blanchard
    5. Wynton Marsalis

  25. In the future, jazz will most likely
    1. continue to reach a wider audience and be increasingly performed, listened to, enjoyed, analyzed, debated, and studied throughout the world
    2. increasingly become a major area of study in American history and social studies classes
    3. be introduced to and performed by younger and younger students
    4. continue to serve as a reminder that differences between people are a good thing and, if channeled properly, can lead to a much greater good
    5. all of the above

    Fill in the blank with the correct answer
    1. Today’s jazz artists are basically going in one of three directions: 1) _________________________, 2) _______________________________________, 3) ___________________________________.
    2. Today’s jazz traditionalists (AKA "jazz purists’") are performing jazz primarily associated with and reflective of what style(s) of jazz?____________________________.
    3. The internationally acclaimed trumpeter who has played a major role in the resurgence of jazz, is at the forefront of the jazz traditionalist (“jazz purist”) movement, and currently serves as Artistic Director for Jazz at Lincoln Center is _______________.
    4. Contemporary mainstream jazz artists are musically influenced mostly by _________________________ sensibilities.
    5. Today’s “anything goes” jazz artists are musically influenced by ______________________________________.
    6. Today’s big bands are mostly found in what setting? __________________________.
    7. The repertoire of today’s big bands is comprised of ___________________________ ____________________________.
    8. Besides the traditional "jazz instruments" (saxophone, trumpet, trombone, piano, bass, drums, guitar, human voice), jazz is increasingly being performed on non-traditional jazz instruments such as __________________________________________.
    9. What instrument does Regina Carter play? ____________________.
    10. Throughout jazz history, instrumental jazz has been primarily a male dominated art form; however, today more and more _____________ are studying and performing jazz and becoming an integral part of the jazz scene.
    11. What instrument does Ingrid Jensen play? ______________________.
    12. What is unique about the big band “Diva?” ___________________.
    13. What do Diana Krall, Dianne Reeves, and Cassandra Wilson all have in common? ___________________________.
    14. Today, perhaps more than ever, jazz represents America’s ______________.
    15. Today, jazz education is increasingly more important in America’s _______________.
    16. List three important international jazz education organizations. 1) ________________________, 2) __________________________, 3) ___________________________.
    17. Name the three eminent jazz musicians on the scene today who were all once members of the landmark Miles Davis Quintet of the 1960s. 1) tenor saxophonist __________________, 2) bassist _______________________, 3) pianist __________________________.
    18. Jazz, like the people, society, and cultures it reflects, is always ____________________________________________________.
    19. Jazz in the future will most likely include ____________________ _____________________________________.
    20. Media for music recordings has progressed from piano rolls, to 78s, to LPs, to CDs, to _________, compressed digital audio files that can be downloaded from the Internet and played on computers or portable devices such as the Apple iPod or SonicBlue Rio.
    21. To increase the number of African Americans in education and government employment, federal and state governments in the 1960s began a policy known as ___________________.
    22. What instrument do Terence Blanchard, Dave Douglas, Nicholas Payton, and Roy Hargrove play? ________________.
    23. What instrument do Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, and Brad Mehldau play? ________________________.
    24. What instrument do Ron Carter, Christian McBride, Dave Holland, and John Patitucci play? ______________________.
    25. What instrument do Joshua Redman, Wayne Shorter, Chris Potter, and Branford Marsalis play? ____________________.


  26. Write a one to two page answer.
    Essay Question #1
    Discuss the jazz scene of today. Include key styles, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

    Essay question #2
    Discuss the future of jazz, i.e., where do you think jazz is going?

    Essay question #3
    How does jazz education in the classroom today differ from the “street learning” of previous generations?

    Essay question #4
    What is “affirmative action?” What were these special programs designed to do? Provide an example of an affirmative action program.

    Essay question #5
    What can individuals, organizations, and the government do to help poor Americans achieve success? Give specific examples.

    Please answer true or false to the following questions.
    1. Today’s jazz artists are basically going in one of three directions: traditional, contemporary mainstream, or “anything goes.” T F
    2. Traditionalists are performing jazz mainly associated with and reflective of blues, swing, free jazz, and fusion. T F
    3. Traditionalists believe that what they play is “real jazz,” not the various hybrids and “add-ons” (according to them) that occurred in the 1960s and since; they are also know as "jazz purists." T F
    4. The internationally acclaimed trumpeter who is at the forefront of the traditionalist movement is Herbie Hancock. T F
    5. Contemporary mainstream jazz artists are influenced mostly by Hard Bop sensibilities. T F
    6. “Anything goes” jazz artists put all kinds of music into their style(s) of jazz except classical music. T F
    7. Two important “anything goes” jazz artists are Dave Liebman and Dave Douglas. T F
    8. Many of today’s jazz musicians often “cross over,” meaning they can be traditionalists, contemporary mainstream artists, or “anything goes” artists, depending on the context in which they are playing. T F
    9. The three eminent jazz musicians on the scene today who came to fame playing in the landmark Miles Davis Quintet of the 1960s are Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter, and Ron Carter. T F
    10. Big bands are more prevalent today in the professional ranks than in America's schools. T F
    11. Today’s big band repertoire consists of everything from Swing Era classics to contemporary arrangements of standards, bebop tunes, pop music, and modern jazz. T F
    12. Besides the traditional "jazz instruments" (saxophone, trumpet, trombone, piano, bass, drums, guitar, human voice), jazz is increasingly being performed on non-traditional jazz instruments (e.g., violin, cello) as well. T F
    13. Ingrid Jensen is one of the top jazz violinists playing today. T F
    14. Throughout jazz history, instrumental jazz has been primarily a male dominated art form; however, today more and more women are studying and performing jazz and becoming an integral part of the jazz scene. T F
    15. One of the top female jazz trumpet players on the scene today is Regina Carter. T F
    16. One of the few steadily working professional big bands on the scene today is an all-female group called Pink. T F
    17. Vocal jazz is often credited with attracting more people to jazz than its instrumental counterpart because of the “lyric factor,” i.e., because there are words, vocal jazz is easier to relate to. T F
    18. Popular jazz vocalists performing today include Billie Holliday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Sarah Vaughn. T F
    19. Jazz and jazz artists represent the homogeneity of America. T F
    20. Although originally informally or self-taught, jazz today is normally taught in classes of all levels from elementary school to college. T F
    21. Jazz, like the people, society, and cultures it reflects, is always evolving. T F
    22. Jazz in the future is likely to include all styles of jazz from the past as well as new styles that fuse together different types of music from around the world as well as new technology that has not yet been imagined. T F
    23. Jazz, an integral component of our nation's history and culture, is increasingly becoming a major area of study American history and social studies classes. T F
    24. To increase the number of African Americans in education and government employment, federal and state governments in the 1960s began a policy known as the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). T F
    25. In the future, jazz will most likely continue to reach a wider audience and be increasingly performed, listened to, enjoyed, analyzed, debated, and studied throughout the world. T F
    Match the words in the columns correctly.

    1. jazz traditionalist (AKA "jazz purist") jazz  

    A. modern jazz fused with all styles of music  

    1. _____

    2. contemporary mainstream jazz  

    B. namesake of important jazz education organization  

    2. _____

    3. "anything goes" jazz  

    C. outstanding female jazz trumpter  

    3. _____

    4. affirmative action  

    D. professional big band in Washington, DC  

    4. _____

    5. Jazz at Lincoln Center  

    E. represented by today's jazz  

    5. _____

    6. MP3  

    F. trumpeter, Jazz at Lincoln Center Artistic Director  

    6. _____

    7. Down Beat  

    G. compressed digital audio file played on an iPod  

    7. _____

    8. today's big bands  

    H. jazz performance/education organization in NYC  

    8. _____

    9. jazz in the future   

    I. blues, swing, bebop, and hard bop  

    9. _____

    10. America's diversity  

    J. US policy to "level the playing field"   

    10. _____

    11. Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra  

    K. found mostly in schools  

    11. _____

    12. Diva  

    L. human voice  

    12. _____

    13. Diana Krall  

    M. old and new jazz styles plus new technology  

    13. _____

    14. Thelonious Monk  

    N. eminent modern jazz pianist and pop artist  

    14. _____

    15. Ingrid Jensen  

    O. trumpet  

    15. _____

    16. Regina Carter  

    P. "cross over" jazz bassist  

    16. _____

    17. Herbie Hancock  

    Q. bass  

    17. _____

    18. Christian McBride  

    R. contemporary jazz vocalist  

    18. _____

    19. Dave Liebman  

    S. modern jazz with hard bop sensibilities  

    19. _____

    20. Wynton Marsalis  

    T. piano  

    20. _____

    21. Joshua Redman and Wayne Shorter's instrument  

    U. modern jazz violinist  

    21. _____

    22. Dave Douglas and Terence Blanchard's instrument  

    V. saxophone  

    22. _____

    23. Ron Carter and Dave Holland's instrument  

    W. modern "anything goes" jazz saxophonist  

    23. _____

    24. Keith Jarrett and Chick Corea's instrument  

    X. jazz magazine  

    24. _____

    25. Cassandra Wilson and Dianne Reeves' "instrument"  

    Y. all-female professional big band  

    25. _____

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