jazz education

Jazz Education


II. The Rise of Formal Jazz Education


A. First to Offer Credit

   

Alabama State U, Tennessee State U, Wilbeforce U, North Texas State U, Berklee College of Music, and Los Angeles City College were the first to offer credit for jazz ensembles, improvisation, and arranging  


B. G.I. Bill

   

After WW II, many service musicians entered higher education on the G.I. Bill (institutions that foresaw and met the demand for specialized training were North Texas State U, Berklee College of Music, and U of Miami and rose to prominence in the field) 


C. New School of Social Research in New York

      

1.

first school to offer jazz history course (1941) 

      

2.

taught by Leonard Feather, Robert Goffin, and Marshall Stearns; viewed jazz from an academic scholarly perspective -- among the first scholarly seminars on jazz  


D. 1950’s

      

1.

over 30 colleges and universities add jazz courses to their curriculum 

      

2.

music publishers influence growth of school jazz via graded arrangements 

      

3.

instrument companies influence growth of school jazz via sponsoring clinicians and underwriting school jazz festivals 

      

4.

first summer seminars 

            

a.

National Stage Band Camp (Indiana Univesity) 

            

b.

Lennox School of Jazz (1957) 

            

c.

Stan Kenton (big band) camps (later to evolve into Jamey Aebersold combo camps) 

      

5.

Berklee College of Music was founded by pianist/arranger and MIT-trained engineer Lawrence Berk in 1945 as Schillinger House of Music; Berk changed the name to Berklee School of Music in 1954 (the school granted its first bachelor's degrees in 1966; in 1973, Berklee obtained its accreditation and the school's name was changed to Berklee College of Music) 


E. 1960s

      

1.

unprecedented growth of jazz in both college and secondary schools 

            

a.

30 college bands in 1960; 450 by 1970 

            

b.

5,000 high school jazz bands in 1960; 15,000 in 1970 

            

c.

of 248 colleges surveyed in 1964, 41 offered jazz classes (classroom instruction) for credit; in 1974 the number had increased to 228 

      

2.

college bands became faculty (rather than student) directed 

      

3.

professional jazz musicians became involved in jazz education 

            

a.

clinics 

            

b.

master classes 

            

c.

method books and other educational materials 

      

4.

more school jazz activities resulted in an increased demand for jazz education materials (much of which had questionable quality) 

      

5.

NAJE 

            

a.

Matt Betton and friends founded the National Association of Jazz Educators (NAJE) in 1968 

            

b.

goals were to pool resources, set standards, authenticate materials, and assist the cause of those involved in jazz education 

            

c.

first year membership was less than 100; it expanded to the International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE) in the 1990's with a membership of over 8,000 jazz educators, students, performers, industry personnel, and enthusiasts in 31 countries 

      

6.

International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE) 

            

a.

an outgrowth of NAJE, IAJE served thousands of members from its inception in the early 1990's until its closing in 2008 due to financial reasons 

            

b.

IAJE was best known for its annual conferences in which thousands of its constituents would gather in a different city every year for four days of jazz concerts by students and professionals (including world renowned artists), clinics, panel discussions, industry exhibitions, networking opportunities, and more 

      

7.

Jazz Education Network (JEN) 

            

a.

an outgrowth of IAJE, JEN began in 2009 under the leadership of Mary Jo Papich with a mission dedicated to building the jazz arts community by advancing education, promoting performance, and developing new audiences 

            

b.

JEN's first annual conference was held in St. Louis in 2010 and was attended by 1,200 jazz educators, students, performers, industry personnel, and enthusiasts 


F. 1970s and 1980s

      

1.

by 1980 there were more than 500,000 high school and college students involved in jazz activities 

      

2.

by 1980, over 500 colleges were offering jazz-related courses for credit 

      

3.

by 1980, more than 70% of America’s 30,000 junior and senior high schools had at least one stage band or jazz ensemble  

      

4.

by 1980, there were approximately 300 summer camp programs that included jazz  

      

5.

high school and collegiate jazz festivals become major events involving thousands of students annually; by 1980 approximately 250 school jazz festivals were being presented each year, some attracting as many as 200 school jazz ensembles 

      

6.

the Canadian Stage Band Festival increased from 18 groups in 1973 to 1,500 groups in 1983 

      

7.

high school all-state jazz ensembles became popular (in 1970 only two states had all-state jazz ensembles; in 1989 over 25) 

      

8.

undergraduate degree programs that began in the ‘60s became more widespread; many colleges and universities instituted graduate programs; in 1972 only 15 U.S. institutions of higher learning offered a degree in jazz studies; by 1982 this number had increased to 72 

      

9.

schools expanded depth of their programs to include vocal jazz, rehearsal techniques, jazz theory and harmony, performance styles and practice, arranging, and improvisation 


G. The A B Cs of Jazz Education: Aebersold, Baker, Coker

      

1.

Jamey Aebersold expanded "Music Minus One" concept whereby jazz students now can play along with a recorded rhythm section, practicing with accompaniment any time they want 

            

a.

play-along recordings feature professional jazz rhythm sections which play accompaniment to common chord progressions, standards, and classic jazz tunes  

            

b.

the Aebersold play-along library includes over 100 full and double length recordings categorized by jazz artist, particular standards, and common chord progressions 

            

c.

recordings feature stereo separation so bassists can play along with piano and drums; pianists can play along with bass and drums; horn players play with full rhythm section 

            

d.

inspiration for today’s Band in a Box computer software (instantly creates rhythm section accompaniment for any tune--or any chord progression--in any key, tempo, or style) Jamey Aebersold is active today as the director of the Jamey Aebersold Summer Jazz Workshops, proprietor of Jamey Aebersold Jazz, Inc. (where he continues to produce play-along recordings and publish jazz education books), a jazz clinician, performer, and adjunct jazz professor at the University of Louisville 

      

2.

David Baker is considered one of the world’s most eminent jazz pedagogues 

            

a.

founded jazz studies program at Indiana University 

            

b.

has written over 60 books and 400 articles on jazz improvisation, arranging, composition, pedagogy, how to learn tunes, how to practice, and related topics 

            

c.

active today as Director of Jazz Studies at IU, a composer, performer, clinician, and Director of the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra 

      

3.

Jerry Coker 

            

a.

founded jazz program at the University of Miami (one of the most innovative schools of jazz today) 

            

b.

has written numerous books on jazz improvisation, how to teach, how to practice, how to hear common chord progressions, how to listen to jazz, and related topics 

            

c.

finished formal education career in the mid 90s at the University of Tennessee 

            

d.

active today as a jazz clinician and performer 


H. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz

      

1.

a non-profit education organization 

      

2.

founded in 1986 by the Monk family along with the late Maria Fisher, an opera singer and lifelong devotee of music  

      

3.

the mission of the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz is to offer the world's most promising young musicians college level training by America's jazz masters and to present public school-based jazz education programs for young people around the world.

Portions taken from "Jazz Studies in American Schools and Colleges: a Brief History" by Daniel Murphy -- Jazz Educators Journal, Vol 26, 1994, pp 34-8
 

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