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6

Cool, Hard Bop, and Modal Jazz

III.

Modal Jazz

footnotes

10. all styles of jazz from Dixieland to contemporary are still being performed and recorded today; all style dates given are approximations of when each respective style came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development; of course, styles and dates overlap

11. The term "Funky Jazz" in the 1950s should not be confused with "Funk," a style of popular music pioneered in the 1970s. Funky Jazz is characterized by its earthy, "low down," soulful, bluesy, and gospel flavored qualities, e.g., Moanin', Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers (IHJ). While Funk also combines elements of jazz, blues, and soul, it is characterized by syncopated rock rhythms and a heavy, repetitive bass line, e.g., Chameleon, Herbie Hancock (Web).

12. contrafact: complex bebop tune written utilizing the same chord progression as an extant standard tune

13. see discussion on Form in Lesson Plan II

14. see discussion on Harmony in Lesson Plan II

II. Hard Bop (1951-1958)

jazz images 1

Miles Davis

jazz images 2

Horace Silver

jazz images 3

Kenny Dorham

jazz images 4

Clifford Brown

jazz images 5

Wes Montgomery


A. Reaction to Cool

      

1.

if Bebop was a reaction to Swing, and Cool was a reaction to the reaction, then Hard Bop may have been a reaction to the reaction of the reaction 

            

a.

Cool was generally a slow paced, subdued, less emotional, soft, controlled, “cool” style of jazz 

            

b.

Hard Bop represented a return to the fast-paced, emotionally charged, energetic, “hot” style of bebop but with more sophistication and control 

      

2.

Hard Bop was heavily dominated by young African Americans disenchanted with Cool’s white domination, de-emphasis of the blues, and sublimation of the emotional and rhythmic components of the music 

      

3.

Hard Bop was centered mainly in Northern cities with a large black population, i.e., New York, Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Indianapolis  


B. Hard Bop and Funky11 - two distinct substyles

   

shared characteristics between the two substyles: 

      

1.

both came out of bebop 

      

2.

many of the same artists were active and important in both (e.g., Horace Silver, Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, Cannonball Adderley) 

      

3.

both display the successful integration of composition, arrangement, and improvisation 

      

4.

the instrumentation was generally two or three horns plus rhythm section (piano and/or guitar, bass, and drums); however, trios and quartets performed in this genre as well  

      

5.

groups came to prominence on the labels of small independent record companies that surfaced in the late 1940s and ‘50s, e.g., Prestige, Blue Note, and Savoy  


C. Hard Bop and Funky - two distinct substyles

   

differences between the two substyles: 

      

1.

Tune Sources 

            

a.

Hard Bop: blues, standards, bebop tunes, originals, and contrafacts12 

            

b.

Funky: more limited than in hard bop; most funky jazz tunes were extant blues tunes or heavily blues and/or gospel influenced original compositions  

      

2.

Forms13 

            

a.

Hard Bop: often unorthodox, varied, and complex 

            

b.

Funky: simple (e.g., 12-bar blues, 16 bar tune, etc.) 

      

3.

Harmony14 

            

a.

Hard Bop: often complex and unorthodox 

            

b.

Funky: simple harmonies (often just two or three chords) 

      

4.

Melody 

            

a.

Hard Bop: heads and solos often employed complex scales 

            

b.

Funky: heads and solos utilized simple scales, mostly related to the blues 

      

5.

Rhythm 

            

a.

Hard Bop: sophisticated and subtle 

            

b.

Funky: simple and explicitly stated (strong influence of gospel and R&B)  

      

6.

Sophistication 

            

a.

Hard Bop: cerebral (however, not void of emotion) 

            

b.

Funky: “earthy,” “down-home” 


D. Important Figures

      

1.

Cannonball Adderley, alto sax (1928-1975) watch video Cannonball Adderley playing Work Song (1962) 

      

2.

Art Blakey, drums (1919-1990) watch video Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers playing Blues March (1959) 

      

3.

John Coltrane, tenor saxophone (1926-1967) watch video John Coltrane playing On Green Dolphin Street (1960) 

      

4.

Miles Davis, trumpet (1926-1991) watch video Miles Davis playing Walkin' (1967) 

      

5.

Barry Harris, piano, (b. 1929) watch video Barry Harris playing I Didn't Know What Time It Was (1967) 

      

6.

Jimmy Heath, tenor saxophone (b. 1926) 

      

7.

The Jazz Messengers (groups led by Art Blakey), watch video The Jazz Messengers playing Dat Dere (1960) 

      

8.

Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone (b. 1930) watch video Sonny Rollins playing Freedom Suite (1958) 

      

9.

Horace Silver, piano (b. 1928) watch video Horace Silver playing Senor Blues (1959) 


E. Play recordings:

      

1.

Hard Bop: "Nica’s Dream," Horace Silver Quintet (IHJ), and/or "Walkin’," Miles Davis (Web), and/or "St. Thomas" Sonny Rollins (Web), and/or "Giant Steps," John Coltrane (Web) 

      

2.

Funky: "Moanin’," Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers (IHJ) and/or "Song for My Father," Horace Silver (Web)  

      

3.

to hear "Song for My Father" and see the arrangement sheet, click here 

Audio Snippets

speakerspacer Walkin' - Miles Davis
speakerspacer St. Thomas - Sonny Rollins
speakerspacer Giant Steps - John Coltrane

Video Clips

videospacer Cannonball Adderley - Work Song
videospacer Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers - Blues March
videospacer John Coltrane - On Green Dolphin Street
videospacer Miles Davis - Walkin'
videospacer Barry Harris - I Didn't Know What Time It Was
videospacer The Jazz Messengers - Dat Dere
videospacer Sonny Rollins - Freedom Suite
videospacer Horace Silver - Senor Blues
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