One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of African origin is
the number of musicians performing
unexpressive musical content
the use of polyrhythms
the type of instruments used
the chord progressions utilized
One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of European origin is
the use of polyrhythms
the type of instruments used
the time of day the music was performed
the number of musicians performing
its utilization as purely functional music
The basic difference between the concept of African music versus European music is
African music was Christian music
European music was functional
the basic concepts are the same
European music was more art music whereas African music was more functional music
African music was a written tradition whereas European music was an aural tradition
The blues evolved from
the types of instruments being played together
slave field hollers and African American folk songs
European art music
the blending of particular chords and rhythms
The blues are usually characterized by
fast march-like tempos
the sweet blending of harmonies
a plaintive and melancholy melodic line
an unemotional quality when played
the use of parade bands
The primary function of the pre jazz dance bands of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was
to entertain the upper class at formal events only
to play strictly for their own enjoyment
to play at various functions, i.e., parties, funerals, parades, and dances
to pass the time
to teach musicians how to read music
A portion of the typical instrumentation of pre jazz dance bands consisted of
piano, flute, and guitar
drums, piano, and French horn
flute, tuba, and drums
trumpet, clarinet, and trombone
violin, French horn, and saxophone
The 19th and early 20th century pre jazz dance bands played
strictly funeral music
music that provides a sense of discipline and structure
only tunes that were composed on the spot
strictly parade music
popular dances of the day, i.e., music with a steady beat
primarily a solo piano style
dance band music
known for its somber musical quality
music with no syncopation
music primarily played by parade bands
The rhythmic quality of ragtime music
is simple and easy to play
has no European influence
incorporates a steady beat in the left hand and a syncopated melody in the right
has no African influence
incorporates a steady beat in the right hand and a syncopated melody in the left
Ragtime reflected the European tradition in the following way:
right hand march-like beat
melodies that were passed down in the aural tradition
standard European chord progressions
the number of instruments used in performance
the vocal quality of the singers
The use of the piano in ragtime is
African in origin
infrequent in performance
used to give the other performers time to rest
European in origin
used to accompany singers
The predominant African influence heard in ragtime is its
right hand march-like beat
left hand syncopated melody
complex right hand syncopation derived from polyrhythms
written musical notation
use of the saxophone
Cultural implications of ragtime include
its reflection of a slower paced American life
its appreciation by upper class Americans alone
its reflection of stricter standards of social behavior
its representation of both conservative and liberal attitudes in America
its performance by predominantly European Americans
The birthplace of jazz was
Jazz was born in an atmosphere which included
restrictions in the musical traditions of the city
a different attitude towards African Americans than that of the rest of the country in general
more conservative, less liberal attitudes
a mostly homogeneous population
The effect of the reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment
had no direct influence on jazz
caused musical ideas to come to a halt
brought the Creoles greater status
helped bring the conservatory trained and aurally trained musicians together
helped to separate the conservatory trained and aurally trained musicians
Early jazz (Dixieland) gave each instrument an assigned role:
Bass-embellish the melody
Drums-used only when necessary
Early jazz(Dixieland) derived many of its tunes from
popular tunes of the day
European classical music
military marches exclusively
rock 'n roll
religious melodies exclusively
The characteristics and performance practices of early jazz (Dixieland) include
few dramatic effects
playing written music only
complex harmonies with solo performances
very little collective improvisation
simple harmonies and improvisation based on embellishing the melody
One of the reasons that the Dixieland style lost its popularity was because
it was stylistically static with very little room for the development of new ideas
there were no dramatic effects
there were no outstanding soloists
there was no emphasis put on individual improvisation
the chordal progressions were too complex
One of the most important musicians of the Dixieland style was
The first jazz recording was
Livery Stable Blues, played by an all white group
Dippermouth Blues, played by Louis Armstrong and King Oliver
The Entertainer, played by Jop Scotland
Maple Leaf Rag, played by Scott Joplin
Livery Stable Blues, played by an all black group
The U.S. Supreme Court declared that Congress had no authority to restrict private individuals from discriminating in which of the following Court cases
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Civil Rights Cases
Plessy v. Ferguson
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
None of the above
Fill in the blank with the correct answer
Jazz's roots are both African and ____________________ in origin.
The use of polyrhythms in jazz is mostly from the ____________________ tradition.
The types of instruments used in jazz are mostly from the ____________________ tradition.
European music was considered art music whereas African music was considered more ____________________.
The Blues are usually characterized by a ____________________ and ____________________.
The Blues evolved from _____________________ and ____________________.
The primary function of the prejazz dance bands of the 19th and early 20th century was to play at
____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
The typical instrumentation of the prejazz dance bands of the 19th and early 20th century consisted of trumpet, clarinet, trombone,
bass, guitar, violin, and ____________________.
The prejazz dance bands played the ____________________ of the day.
Ragtime is primarily a ____________________.
Ragtime incorporated a march like beat in the left hand and ____________________ melodies in the right.
Ragtime reflected both European and ____________________ musical traditions.
Ragtime's European influence was visible in its written ____________________.
The most prominent Ragtime composer in history was ____________________.
Ragtime reflected the balance of the American attitude from ____________________ to ____________________.
One of Scott Joplin's most famous Ragtime compositions was ____________________.
The birthplace of Early Jazz (Dixieland) was ____________________.
The reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment to justify segregation forced the African Americans and ____________________ together thus blending their musical traditions.
The typical instrumentation of the Dixieland bands included ____________________, ____________________,
____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
Each instrument in the Dixieland tradition was giver an assigned role. The trumpet played the ____________________
whereas the tuba played the ____________________.
One characteristic and performance practice of Dixieland music was collective ____________________.
One of the reasons Dixieland lost its popularity was because it became stylistically ____________________.
The most important musician of the Dixieland style was ____________________.
The name of the first jazz recording was ____________________.
The first jazz recording was recorded in ____________________ (date).
Write a one to two page answer. Essay Question #1
Describe how Jazz began. What preexisting cultures influenced jazz? In what way did these traits contribute to form jazz? Give specific examples.
Essay question #2
Categorize the beginnings of jazz (pre blues through and including Dixieland). What elements existed in each step of the development of jazz?
Essay question #3
Explain how the Black experience in America led to the development of a distinctive African American culture.
Essay question #4
New Orleans was fertile ground for the birthplace of jazz at the turn of the century. What type of city was it and what elements contributed to the flourishing of this new music?
Essay question #5
How did Dixieland differ from the Blues? How did it differ from Ragtime? What made it popular? Include instrumentation and the type of interaction between the various players. Why did the American public eventually lose interest in Dixieland?
Please answer true or false to the following questions.
Jazz's roots are strictly European in origin.
One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of African origin is the use of polyrhythms.
One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of European origin is the type of instrumentation used.
African music is considered art music whereas European music is considered functional.
The Blues evolved from slave field hollers and African American folk songs.
The Blues are usually characterized by lightheartedness and a fast tempo.
Prejazz dance bands of the late 19th and early 20th century played at parties, funerals, parades, and dances.
The typical instrumentation of the prejazz dance bands included trumpet and violin.
The prejazz dance bands played strictly parade music.
Ragtime is primarily a solo piano style.
Ragtime incorporated a march like beat in the right hand and syncopated melodies in the left.
Ragtime reflected European traditions in its written musical notation.
Ragtime chord progressions were from the African tradition.
Ragtime's complex right hand syncopation derived from polyrhythms is of African origin.
The most prominent Ragtime composer was Louis Armstrong.
Ragtime reflected the "balance" of American attitudes (conservative and liberal) in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Ragtime reflected the new slower pace of American society in the early 1900s.
The birth place of jazz was New York City.
Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke had a dual career of teaching music composition at prestigious New York conservatories and playing the cornet with popular jazz bands at the Cotton Club.
Louis Armstrong grew up in New Orleans and was introduced to music in a children's home.
Louis Armstrong's popularity faded when the Swing era began and he was unable to maintain his earlier reputation as a leading trumpeter and singer.
The institution of slavery succeeded in destroying all aspects of African culture forcing African Americans to adopt a white American culture.
The United States Constitution forbade the slave trade while permitting the practice of slavery in the Southern states.
At the time of the American Revolution, slavery had been abolished in all the northern states and western territories.
Laws enacted after Reconstruction that segregated the races were known as Jim Crow laws.
Match the words in the columns correctly.
1. Jazz's roots
A. Slow and melancholy
2. African origin
B. New Orleans
3. European origin
C. 14th Amendment
4. African music
D. Livery Stable Blues
5. European music
6. Blues (its roots)
F. African and European in origin.
G. Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, tuba, banjo and drums
8. Prejazz dance bands
H. Dixieland trumpet player
10. Ragtime incorporated...
11. Ragtime European influence
K. Collective improvisation
12. Ragtime African influence
13. Ragtime composer
M. Syncopated right hand rhythms
14. Birthplace of jazz
N. Embellishing the melody
15. Creoles and African Americans
O. Slave field hollers
16. Dixieland instrumentation
P. Primarily a piano solo
17. Trumpet (Dixieland)
Q. Stylistically static, little room for growth
18. piano (Dixieland)
R. a march like beat in the left hand and syncopation in the right
S. Type of instrumentation used
20. Dixieland Improvisation
T. Written musical notation
21. Dixieland style trait
U. Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, bass, guitar, drums, and violin