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  1. In the 1600s, African music was predominantly
    1. Christian music
    2. taught in African music conservatories
    3. artistic music
    4. functional music
    5. performed by professional musicians

  2. One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of African origin is
    1. the number of musicians performing
    2. unexpressive musical content
    3. the use of polyrhythms
    4. the type of instruments used
    5. the chord progressions utilized

  3. One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of European origin is
    1. the use of polyrhythms
    2. the type of instruments used
    3. the time of day the music was performed
    4. the number of musicians performing
    5. its utilization as purely functional music

  4. The basic difference between the concept of African music versus European music is
    1. African music was Christian music
    2. European music was functional
    3. the basic concepts are the same
    4. European music was more art music whereas African music was more functional music
    5. African music was a written tradition whereas European music was an aural tradition

  5. The blues evolved from
    1. the types of instruments being played together
    2. slave field hollers and African American folk songs
    3. European art music
    4. the blending of particular chords and rhythms
    5. dance music

  6. The blues are usually characterized by
    1. fast march-like tempos
    2. the sweet blending of harmonies
    3. a plaintive and melancholy melodic line
    4. an unemotional quality when played
    5. the use of parade bands

  7. The primary function of the pre jazz dance bands of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was
    1. to entertain the upper class at formal events only
    2. to play strictly for their own enjoyment
    3. to play at various functions, i.e., parties, funerals, parades, and dances
    4. to pass the time
    5. to teach musicians how to read music

  8. A portion of the typical instrumentation of pre jazz dance bands consisted of
    1. piano, flute, and guitar
    2. drums, piano, and French horn
    3. flute, tuba, and drums
    4. trumpet, clarinet, and trombone
    5. violin, French horn, and saxophone

  9. The 19th and early 20th century pre jazz dance bands played
    1. strictly funeral music
    2. music that provides a sense of discipline and structure
    3. only tunes that were composed on the spot
    4. strictly parade music
    5. popular dances of the day, i.e., music with a steady beat

  10. Ragtime is
    1. primarily a solo piano style
    2. dance band music
    3. known for its somber musical quality
    4. music with no syncopation
    5. music primarily played by parade bands

  11. The rhythmic quality of ragtime music
    1. is simple and easy to play
    2. has no European influence
    3. incorporates a steady beat in the left hand and a syncopated melody in the right
    4. has no African influence
    5. incorporates a steady beat in the right hand and a syncopated melody in the left

  12. Ragtime reflected the European tradition in the following way:
    1. right hand march-like beat
    2. melodies that were passed down in the aural tradition
    3. standard European chord progressions
    4. the number of instruments used in performance
    5. the vocal quality of the singers

  13. The use of the piano in ragtime is
    1. African in origin
    2. infrequent in performance
    3. used to give the other performers time to rest
    4. European in origin
    5. used to accompany singers

  14. The predominant African influence heard in ragtime is its
    1. right hand march-like beat
    2. left hand syncopated melody
    3. complex right hand syncopation derived from polyrhythms
    4. written musical notation
    5. use of the saxophone

  15. Cultural implications of ragtime include
    1. its reflection of a slower paced American life
    2. its appreciation by upper class Americans alone
    3. its reflection of stricter standards of social behavior
    4. its representation of both conservative and liberal attitudes in America
    5. its performance by predominantly European Americans

  16. The birthplace of jazz was
    1. New York
    2. Chicago
    3. Plymouth
    4. Salt Lake
    5. New Orleans

  17. Jazz was born in an atmosphere which included
    1. restrictions in the musical traditions of the city
    2. a different attitude towards African Americans than that of the rest of the country in general
    3. little entertainment
    4. more conservative, less liberal attitudes
    5. a mostly homogeneous population

  18. The effect of the reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment
    1. had no direct influence on jazz
    2. caused musical ideas to come to a halt
    3. brought the Creoles greater status
    4. helped bring the conservatory trained and aurally trained musicians together
    5. helped to separate the conservatory trained and aurally trained musicians

  19. Early jazz (Dixieland) gave each instrument an assigned role:
    1. Trumpet-melody
    2. Clarinet-rhythmic accompaniment
    3. Bass-embellish the melody
    4. Piano-melody
    5. Drums-used only when necessary

  20. Early jazz(Dixieland) derived many of its tunes from
    1. popular tunes of the day
    2. European classical music
    3. military marches exclusively
    4. rock 'n roll
    5. religious melodies exclusively

  21. The characteristics and performance practices of early jazz (Dixieland) include
    1. few dramatic effects
    2. playing written music only
    3. complex harmonies with solo performances
    4. very little collective improvisation
    5. simple harmonies and improvisation based on embellishing the melody

  22. One of the reasons that the Dixieland style lost its popularity was because
    1. it was stylistically static with very little room for the development of new ideas
    2. there were no dramatic effects
    3. there were no outstanding soloists
    4. there was no emphasis put on individual improvisation
    5. the chordal progressions were too complex

  23. One of the most important musicians of the Dixieland style was
    1. Scott Joplin
    2. Louis Armstrong
    3. Frank Sinatra
    4. Beethoven
    5. Charlie Parker

  24. The first jazz recording was
    1. Livery Stable Blues, played by an all white group
    2. Dippermouth Blues, played by Louis Armstrong and King Oliver
    3. The Entertainer, played by Jop Scotland
    4. Maple Leaf Rag, played by Scott Joplin
    5. Livery Stable Blues, played by an all black group

  25. The U.S. Supreme Court declared that Congress had no authority to restrict private individuals from discriminating in which of the following Court cases
    1. Dred Scott v. Sanford
    2. Civil Rights Cases
    3. Plessy v. Ferguson
    4. Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
    5. None of the above

Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. Jazz's roots are both African and ____________________ in origin.
  2. The use of polyrhythms in jazz is mostly from the ____________________ tradition.
  3. The types of instruments used in jazz are mostly from the ____________________ tradition.
  4. European music was considered art music whereas African music was considered more ____________________.
  5. The Blues are usually characterized by a ____________________ and ____________________.
  6. The Blues evolved from _____________________ and ____________________.
  7. The primary function of the prejazz dance bands of the 19th and early 20th century was to play at ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
  8. The typical instrumentation of the prejazz dance bands of the 19th and early 20th century consisted of trumpet, clarinet, trombone, bass, guitar, violin, and ____________________.
  9. The prejazz dance bands played the ____________________ of the day.
  10. Ragtime is primarily a ____________________.
  11. Ragtime incorporated a march like beat in the left hand and ____________________ melodies in the right.
  12. Ragtime reflected both European and ____________________ musical traditions.
  13. Ragtime's European influence was visible in its written ____________________.
  14. The most prominent Ragtime composer in history was ____________________.
  15. Ragtime reflected the balance of the American attitude from ____________________ to ____________________.
  16. One of Scott Joplin's most famous Ragtime compositions was ____________________.
  17. The birthplace of Early Jazz (Dixieland) was ____________________.
  18. The reinterpretation of the 14th Amendment to justify segregation forced the African Americans and ____________________ together thus blending their musical traditions.
  19. The typical instrumentation of the Dixieland bands included ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
  20. Each instrument in the Dixieland tradition was giver an assigned role. The trumpet played the ____________________ whereas the tuba played the ____________________.
  21. One characteristic and performance practice of Dixieland music was collective ____________________.
  22. One of the reasons Dixieland lost its popularity was because it became stylistically ____________________.
  23. The most important musician of the Dixieland style was ____________________.
  24. The name of the first jazz recording was ____________________.
  25. The first jazz recording was recorded in ____________________ (date).


Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
Describe how Jazz began. What preexisting cultures influenced jazz? In what way did these traits contribute to form jazz? Give specific examples.

Essay question #2
Categorize the beginnings of jazz (pre blues through and including Dixieland). What elements existed in each step of the development of jazz?

Essay question #3
Explain how the Black experience in America led to the development of a distinctive African American culture.

Essay question #4
New Orleans was fertile ground for the birthplace of jazz at the turn of the century. What type of city was it and what elements contributed to the flourishing of this new music?

Essay question #5
How did Dixieland differ from the Blues? How did it differ from Ragtime? What made it popular? Include instrumentation and the type of interaction between the various players. Why did the American public eventually lose interest in Dixieland?

Please answer true or false to the following questions.                                                                                                
1. Jazz's roots are strictly European in origin.T F
2. One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of African origin is the use of polyrhythms. TF
3. One of the traits in jazz that is primarily of European origin is the type of instrumentation used.TF
4. African music is considered art music whereas European music is considered functional.TF
5. The Blues evolved from slave field hollers and African American folk songs.TF
6. The Blues are usually characterized by lightheartedness and a fast tempo.TF
7. Prejazz dance bands of the late 19th and early 20th century played at parties, funerals, parades, and dances.TF
8. The typical instrumentation of the prejazz dance bands included trumpet and violin.TF
9. The prejazz dance bands played strictly parade music.TF
10. Ragtime is primarily a solo piano style. TF
11. Ragtime incorporated a march like beat in the right hand and syncopated melodies in the left.TF
12. Ragtime reflected European traditions in its written musical notation. TF
13. Ragtime chord progressions were from the African tradition.TF
14. Ragtime's complex right hand syncopation derived from polyrhythms is of African origin.TF
15. The most prominent Ragtime composer was Louis Armstrong.TF
16. Ragtime reflected the "balance" of American attitudes (conservative and liberal) in the late 19th and early 20th century.T F
17. Ragtime reflected the new slower pace of American society in the early 1900s. TF
18. The birth place of jazz was New York City.TF
19. Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke had a dual career of teaching music composition at prestigious New York conservatories and playing the cornet with popular jazz bands at the Cotton Club.TF
20. Louis Armstrong grew up in New Orleans and was introduced to music in a children's home.TF
21. Louis Armstrong's popularity faded when the Swing era began and he was unable to maintain his earlier reputation as a leading trumpeter and singer.TF
22. The institution of slavery succeeded in destroying all aspects of African culture forcing African Americans to adopt a white American culture.T F
23. The United States Constitution forbade the slave trade while permitting the practice of slavery in the Southern states.TF
24. At the time of the American Revolution, slavery had been abolished in all the northern states and western territories.TF
25. Laws enacted after Reconstruction that segregated the races were known as Jim Crow laws. TF
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. Jazz's roots  

A. Slow and melancholy  

1. _____

2. African origin  

B. New Orleans  

2. _____

3. European origin  

C. 14th Amendment  

3. _____

4. African music  

D. Livery Stable Blues  

4. _____

5. European music  

E. 1917  

5. _____

6. Blues (its roots)  

F. African and European in origin.  

6. _____

7. Blues  

G. Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, tuba, banjo and drums  

7. _____

8. Prejazz dance bands  

H. Dixieland trumpet player  

8. _____

9. Ragtime  

I. Functional  

9. _____

10. Ragtime incorporated...  

J. Melody  

10. _____

11. Ragtime European influence  

K. Collective improvisation  

11. _____

12. Ragtime African influence  

L. Polyrhythms  

12. _____

13. Ragtime composer  

M. Syncopated right hand rhythms  

13. _____

14. Birthplace of jazz  

N. Embellishing the melody  

14. _____

15. Creoles and African Americans  

O. Slave field hollers  

15. _____

16. Dixieland instrumentation  

P. Primarily a piano solo  

16. _____

17. Trumpet (Dixieland)  

Q. Stylistically static, little room for growth  

17. _____

18. piano (Dixieland)  

R. a march like beat in the left hand and syncopation in the right  

18. _____

19. Dixieland  

S. Type of instrumentation used  

19. _____

20. Dixieland Improvisation  

T. Written musical notation  

20. _____

21. Dixieland style trait  

U. Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, bass, guitar, drums, and violin  

21. _____

22. Dixieland trumpet player  

V. Chordal harmony and rhythmic accompaniment  

22. _____

23. Louis Armstrong  

W. Art music  

23. _____

24. First jazz recording  

X. Scott Joplin  

24. _____

25. Livery Stable Blues  

Y. King Oliver  

25. _____

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