Recording ban by order of the American Federation of Musicians
The musical format during the Swing Era was somewhat restrictive in the sense that
arrangers were not utilized
all the music was written with no room for solo improvisation
it could not be appreciated by the public at large
rhythm sections became stereotyped, lacking creativity
black and white musicians never played together
By the early 1940s most big bands sounded stylistically
surprising (one never knew what the band was going to do next)
The Recording Ban ran from
July 1942 - November 1943
April 1941 - November 1942
July 1940 - October 1943
August 1941 - November 1943
May 1939 - November 1941
Many big bands broke up because
band members didn't like one another other
the players resented the arrangers
they were not able to record new material during the recording ban
dance halls were too small to bring in enough revenue to pay the
instruments became too expensive
Toward the end of the Swing Era, African American jazz musicains
were rarely given the opportunity to improvise compared to their
European American counterparts
were generally treated less fairly than their European American
witnessed no capitalizization on jazz by European Americans
were generally treated more fairly than their European American
were not permitted to play with European American musicians
One of the reasons African Americans wanted to create their "own" music,
Bebop, was because
Swing music was becoming too difficult
they wanted to create a music that everyone could play
they were tired of always having to be creative
they were tired of watching their musical innovations capitalized on
by European Americans
of the money they could make
One of the reasons African American musicians moved away from Swing in the mid 1940s
they wanted to write more innovative arrangements
they missed playing in their hometowns
they wanted to play a simpler form of music
they preferred Rock 'n roll
they wanted to create a music for listening and not for dancing,
i.e., art music
European American jazz musicians were usually paid
less than their African American counterparts
more than the composers
more than their African American counterparts
in cash only
by check only
The jazz music that immediately followed the Swing era was
Part of the philosophy behind Bebop was that it was
for everyone to play
easy to understand
a mostly European invention
Bebop had the effect of removing jazz from
the mainstream of popular music
the small ensemble setting
Bebop musicians considered themselves
Bebop was primarily designed as a vehicle for
communication between listener and audience
white musicians to display their conservatory training
a European invention
an African American invention
a routine way of approaching chord progressions
considered the popular music of the mid 1940s to mid 1950s
was usually performed in large ensembles
was usually performed in small ensembles
was carefully arranged
featured only saxophone and trumpet
was more polyphonic than homophonic
The usual size of a Bebop combo was a (an)
Two of the most common instruments in a Bebop combo were
saxophone and trumpet
flute and guitar
piano and tuba
banjo and bass
trombone and clarinet
simple chord structures
"trimmed down" arrangements
complex introductions and endings
The basic format of Bebop was performance of the head, then improvised solos, then
trading fours or eights, then:
a pause for applause
the last chorus, usually the"head" in unison
an African ending
When singers participated in Bebop they would often
sing in an operatic manner
leave all the improvisation to the instrumentalists
never sing the original lyrics
sing clearly defined words when they improvised
The most important trumpet player in the Bebop Era was
The Harlem Renaissance was a period in which African American writers
imitated classical European styles in literature
focused on African American experiences in their writings
abandoned realism in favor of romanticism
wrote idealist novels in the style of the 17th-century English Renaissance
wrote poems and novels to please white audiences
Claude McKay and Billie Holiday used their talents to expose
racism in America
the horrors of war
lavish military expenditures after World War I
Fill in the blank with the correct answer
One of the reasons for the demise of swing was the draft of musicians into
__________________________ and __________________________ were rationed during World
War II making transportation more difficult.
Bebop came about, in part, due to Swing’s __________________________ musical
The improvised solos during the Swing era were generally much
__________________________ than those of the Bebop Era.
One of the reasons for the stagnation of Swing music toward the end of the Swing Era
was the use of the same kinds of basic __________________________ progressions used over
The Bebop Era’s dates were basically ____________ to.____________.
Most big bands, by the early 40's sounded stylistically __________________________
The recording ban lasted from July ____________ to November ____________.
Many big bands broke up during the recording ban because they could not
__________________________ new music.
Becoming increasingly disenchanted with Swing music toward the end of the Swing Era,
jazz’s African American innovators pioneered __________________________.
While today Bebop is played by musicians of virtually every ethnicity, it was invented
Bebop’s primary intended purpose was for __________________________, noT For
Bebop was intended to be __________________________ music, not
Bebop removed jazz from the mainstream of __________________________music.
Bebop musicians considered themselves __________________________, not entertainers.
Bebop solos were generally more __________________________ than their Swing
The night club in Harlem famous for its jam sessions in the 1940s and its important
roll in the incubation of Bebop was _______________________________.
The street dubbed the Street of Bop, famous for featuring several jazz clubs was
Bebop is designed for __________________________, not elaborate arrangements.
Singing nonsense syllables in a Bebop fashion is known as __________________________
A Bebop tune written utilizing the same chord progression as an extant standard is
called a _______________________________.
During the first chorus of a Bebop tune, the__________________________is usually
played in unison.
The most important alto saxophonist during the Bebop era was
The most important trumpet player during the Bebop era was
Geographically, Bebop was centered in _______________________________.
Write a one to two page answer. Essay Question #1
Explain the cultural reasons for the demise of swing. How did World War II have an effect
on the demise of swing? Give examples.
Essay question #2
Explain the musical reasons for the demise of swing.
Essay question #3
How did racial inequality play a part in the birth of Bebop?
Essay question #4
Explain the performance practice of Bebop and how it differs from Swing. Compare and
contrast the two.
Essay question #5
How did the arts help to promote an awareness of the horrors of lynching in America? What influence does literature, art, and music have on promoting social awareness in today’s society?
Please answer true or false to the following questions.
One of the reasons for the demise of Swing was World War II.
Toward the end of the Swing Era transportation was easy.
Gas rationing contributed to the demise of Swing.
Compared to Bebop, Swing was generally more complex.
There were longer solo opportunities in Swing than in Bebop.
The rhythms toward the end of the Swing Era became stereotypical and lacking in creativity.
Toward the end of the Swing Era, Swing music presented many surprises in its musical presentation.
Toward the end of the Swing Era and prior to the Bebop Era, jazz had fallen into a rut.
By the early 1940's most big bands sounded stylistically different.
The recording ban went From July 1942 to November 1942.
Not being able to record new material during the recording ban, many big bands broke up.
During the Bebop Era, there was racial equality between African and European American jazz musicians.
African American musicians were usually paid the same as European American musicians.
Just prior to the Bebop Era, many African American jazz musicians became increasingly disenchanted with Swing music.
One of the reasons African American jazz musicians desired to create a new style of jazz music was because they were tired of were tired of watching their innovations capitalized upon by their European American counterparts.
Thelonious Monk played the saxophone.
Bebop had the effect of removing jazz from the mainstream of popular commercial music.
Bebop musicians considered themselves entertainers, not artists.
Bebop was a completely African American invention.
The performance practice of Bebop was primarily a large group.
Bebop was very virtuosic music, not easy to play.
Most Bebop arrangements are simple, "trimmed down" compared to Swing arrangements.
Long introductions are common in Bebop.
Billie Holiday is noted for her mellow style that meshed with the Big Band sounds during the Swing era.
Strange Fruit, popularized by Billie Holiday, was a social commentary on racism in America.