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  1. Free Jazz was a reaction to
    1. Dixieland
    2. the yuppies of the 1980s
    3. the women’s movement
    4. Rock 'n Roll
    5. Swing, Cool Jazz, and Hard Bop

  2. Free Jazz improvisation was generally
    1. not predetermined
    2. easy to listen to
    3. based on predetermined chord progressions
    4. based on the Blues
    5. simple

  3. Free Jazz musicians freed themselves by improvising
    1. for at least three standard choruses
    2. solely on the emotions of the moment
    3. ala Kenny G
    4. infrequently
    5. according to the composer’s intentions

  4. In Free Jazz, traditional values of melody, harmony, and rhythm were
    1. referred to continually
    2. used to build the form of a tune
    3. discarded
    4. important
    5. always in the soloist's mind

  5. Free Jazz is most closely related to
    1. the homeless
    2. improvised 20th century classical and world music
    3. Rock ‘n Roll
    4. Funk
    5. inexpensive jazz

  6. Free Jazz allowed for the exploration of
    1. tonal colors and harmonies
    2. traditional ways to play Swing
    3. ideas on how to make jazz more traditional
    4. ideas on how to make jazz more audience accessible
    5. expensive jazz

  7. Free Jazz
    1. was highly regarded by all
    2. pushed the limits of what musicians could play and what audiences could accept
    3. was popular among musicians
    4. became the most popular jazz style in the late 1950’s and ‘60s
    5. was generally understandable and easy to follow

  8. In a sense, Free Jazz became more Afro-centric than Hard Bop because
    1. rather than traditional jazz instruments, it utilized traditional African instruments
    2. it structured itself on previous styles
    3. it followed strict harmonic rules
    4. it used extensive African arrangements
    5. it discarded European chord progressions

  9. The music of Free Jazz was
    1. tonal
    2. simple
    3. structured
    4. atonal
    5. predictable

  10. In Free Jazz, the rhythm was
    1. steady and measured
    2. predictable
    3. highly varied
    4. highly unvaried
    5. based on free reggae rhythms

  11. An important figure in Free Jazz was
    1. Frank Sinatra
    2. Ornette Coleman
    3. Duke Ellington
    4. Charlie Parker
    5. Billy Strayhorn

  12. An important group in Free Jazz was
    1. The Hot Five
    2. The Jazz Messengers
    3. Duke Ellington Orchestra
    4. Miles Davis Quintet
    5. Art Ensemble of Chicago

  13. Two important Free Jazz tunes were
    1. Full Force, Lonely Woman
    2. Birdland, Kind of Blue
    3. Morning Dance, Mister Magic
    4. Its Been a Hard Day's Night, Help
    5. Change of Heart, Impressions

  14. The Fusion Era was from
    1. 1950 - 1961
    2. 1965 - 1975
    3. 1975 - 1985
    4. 1980 - 1989
    5. 1969 - 1990

  15. Fusion experienced jazz musicians experimenting with
    1. Classical music
    2. traditional instruments
    3. electronic instruments
    4. various swing rhythms
    5. a return to the sensibilities of the Cool Jazz Era

  16. Fusion basically fused the sophistication of jazz with the raw emotional power of
    1. Classical Music
    2. Swing
    3. Dixieland
    4. Rock
    5. Bebop

  17. Free Jazz alienated jazz audiences whereas Fusion
    1. alienated them even more
    2. brought jazz a popularity not witnessed since the Swing Era
    3. was art for art’s sake
    4. brought new interest in rediscovering the Standards
    5. had no emotional impact on them

  18. The landmark recording that launched Fusion was
    1. Bitches Brew
    2. Workin'
    3. Izhak Perlman at Carnegie Hall
    4. The Shape of Jazz to Come
    5. Kind of Blue

  19. Fusion groups instrumentation included
    1. rock instruments only
    2. classical instruments only
    3. everything but a rhythm section
    4. both rock and jazz instruments
    5. a rhythm section only

  20. Fusion groups were characterized by
    1. individual Bebop soloists
    2. standard written arrangements
    3. collective improvisation and high energy
    4. an elegance not witnessed since duke Ellington
    5. cerebral live performances void of showmanship

  21. An important figure in the Fusion Era was
    1. George Benson
    2. Sting
    3. Benny Goodman
    4. Charlie Parker
    5. Herbie Hancock

  22. An important fusion tune was
    1. Kind of Blue
    2. Take Five
    3. Song for My Father
    4. Birdland
    5. Impressions

  23. The challenge to desegregate interstate buses and facilities in bus stations throughout the South was a tactic used by
    1. Black Panthers
    2. Freedom Riders
    3. The Nation of Islam
    4. White Citizens’ Councils
    5. Attorney General Robert Kennedy

  24. "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965 is the term given to which of the following events in the civil rights movement
    1. firebombing of a bus carrying freedom riders to Birmingham
    2. bombing the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham
    3. attack on civil rights marchers in Selma, Alabama
    4. murder of Medgar Evers
    5. assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  25. The Black Panther Party was established as
    1. an alternative to the two major political parties in the United States.
    2. a political party formed to oppose passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
    3. a militant Black Nationalist party.
    4. a political party in Mississippi to bring an end to that state’s Jim Crow laws.
    5. a political movement to support Martin Luther King’s candidacy in the 1968 presidential election.

Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. The era of Free Jazz was from __________________________ to __________________________.

  2. Free Jazz improvisations were generally not based on predetermined _____________________________________.

  3. In _____________________ Jazz, traditional values of melody, harmony, and rhythm were disregarded.

  4. Like the term implies, Free Jazz provided more improvisational __________________________ for the soloist.

  5. Free Jazz allowed for the exploration of new tonal colors, rhythms, and ______________________________.

  6. Free Jazz pushed the limits of what musicians could play and what audiences could ______________________________.

  7. The “A,B, Cs” of jazz education are _________________________, _____________________, and _______________________.

  8. Free jazz discarded European ______________________________, making jazz even more Afro-centric.

  9. The concept of pitch varied in Free Jazz according to musical circumstances and the thoughts and __________________________ of the players.

  10. The use of rhythm in Free Jazz was highly varied, often with no steady ______________________________.

  11. The most important saxophonist in the Free Jazz era was ________________________________________.

  12. Lonely Woman was composed by ________________________________________.

  13. The Fusion Era was from __________________________ to __________________________.

  14. In Fusion, jazz musicians fused__________________________ and __________________________.

  15. Fusion utilized both acoustic and __________________________ instruments.

  16. Free Jazz was “cerebral,” Fusion was “__________________________.”

  17. Free Jazz was “acoustic,” Fusion was “__________________________.”

  18. The composer of Bitches Brew was _____________________________________.

  19. _____________________Jazz was (is) associated with the uncommitted, private, detached life styles of a fragmented, commercially oriented 1970s and mass public.

  20. __________________________ groups utilized many electronic devices.

  21. The style of jazz in the 1960 most closely associated with the phrase art for art’s sake was _______________________________.

  22. A popular Fusion group lead by Wayne Shorter and Josef Zawinul was __________________________________.

  23. The most important electric bassist from the Fusion Era was________________________________________.

  24. _____________________________________ is a simpler, more “listenable,” commercial type of jazz.

  25. Less sophisticated than its Hard Bop, Cool Jazz, and Fusion counterparts, ____________________________ Jazz has a light rhythmic buoyancy and a “feel good” emotional quality that appeals to a wide audience.

Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
Explain how Free Jazz evolved from of its jazz ancestors. How was Free Jazz a reaction to what was happening in America in the late 1950s and early ‘60s? What was the cultural statement it was trying to make?

Essay question #2
Explain how Free Jazz was a part of the post World War II era. Compare and contrast what was happening in America prior to and after World War II. Why did Free Jazz become part of the voice of the American landscape?

Essay question #3
How was Free Jazz an outgrowth and expression of the Civil Rights movement in America? What was the political, social, and economic climate of “America that allowed (caused) Free Jazz to emerge?

Essay question #4
What was the general feeling in America during the development of Fusion? How did Fusion reflect the cultural landscape at the time?

Essay question #5
Why is jazz education important in America today? Through the study of jazz, what can we learn about America? What can we learn about ourselves?

Please answer true or false to the following questions.
1. The era of Free Jazz was from 1959 - 1970. T F
2. Free Jazz improvisations were generally based on standard chord progressions. T F
3. With Free Jazz, traditional values of melody, harmony and rhythm were discarded. T F
4. Free Jazz was based on preconceived notions of what jazz was "supposed to be." T F
5. Free Jazz allowed for the exploration of new tonal colors and harmonies. T F
6. Free Jazz was easy to listen to and widely accepted by audiences. T F
7. Discarding European chord progressions, Free Jazz became even more Afro-centric than Hard Bop. T F
8. In Free Jazz the music is tonal. T F
9. The use of rhythm in Free Jazz was highly varied, often with no steady pulse. T F
10. An important alto saxophonist in Free Jazz was Ornette Coleman. T F
11. An important group during the Free Jazz era was the Duke Ellington Orchestra. T F
12. The Fusion era was from 1969 - 1990. T F
13. In Fusion, jazz musicians fused Swing and Dixieland. T F
14. In Fusion, the sophistication and virtuosity of jazz is fused with the raw power and emotion of rock. T F
15. Most jazz musicians and audiences agreed with the "art-for-art's sake" attitude of Free Jazz players. T F
16. Fusion appealed to a broader spectrum of tastes than did Free Jazz, bringing jazz a renewed popularity. in the 1970s. T F
17. Generally speaking, Fusion ignored its audience, whereas Free Jazz strived to reach and affect its audience. T F
18. President Kennedy sent Congress two landmark civil rights laws within a few days of his inauguration. T F
19. "Sit-ins" were a tactic used to desegregate lunch counters throughout the South. T F
20. Integration of state colleges and universities in the South progressed peaceably. T F
21. Rev. Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" renounced his commitment to civil disobedience and called for a violent campaign to end segregation. T F
22. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X put aside their differences and joined forces during the March on Washington in the summer of 1963. T F
23. Opponents of American involvement in Vietnam adopted many of the tactics used in the civil rights movement. T F
24. During the 1960s race riots occurred exclusively in the South while anti-war protests were confined to urban areas of the North. T F
25. The "Tet Offensive" in 1968 convinced President Johnson to bring a quick end to American involvement in Vietnam. T F
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. Free Jazz Era  

A. commercial  

1. _____

2. Free Jazz improvisation  

B. David Sanborn  

2. _____

3. Herbie Hancock  

C. Ornette Coleman  

3. _____

4. John McLaughlin  

D. Full Force  

4. _____

5. Birdland  

E. 1969 - 1990  

5. _____

6. jazz education  

F. physical  

6. _____

7. Smooth Jazz alto saxophonist  

G. Miles Davis  

7. _____

8. Free Jazz alto saxophonist  

H. combination of jazz and rock instruments  

8. _____

9. Free Jazz group  

I. mostly original material  

9. _____

10. Art Ensemble of Chicago  

J. 1959 - 1970  

10. _____

11. Fusion Era  

K. Josef Zawinul, Wayne Shorter  

11. _____

12. combination of jazz and rock  

L. Weather Report  

12. _____

13. Fusion instruments  

M. electric bass  

13. _____

14. Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz  

N. piano and electric keyboards  

14. _____

15. piano and electric keyboards  

O. play along recordings  

15. _____

16. Free Jazz  

P. electric guitar  

16. _____

17. Fusion  

Q. Aebersold, Baker, Coker  

17. _____

18. Bitches Brew  

R. not based on predetermined chord progressions  

18. _____

19. recording that launched Fusion  

S. Art Ensemble of Chicago  

19. _____

20. instrumentation in Fusion groups  

T. cerebral  

20. _____

21. Jamey Aebersold  

U. electric guitar, electric bass, electronic keyboards  

21. _____

22. Fusion repertoire  

V. jazz conservatory and outreach  

22. _____

23. Weather Report  

W. Chick Corea  

23. _____

24. Jaco Pastorius  

X. Fusion  

24. _____

25. Smooth Jazz  

Y. Bitches Brew  

25. _____

the thelonious monk institute of jazz
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