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  1. One reason for the demise of swing was
    1. World War II and the draft
    2. ragtime
    3. too many soloists
    4. poor arrangements
    5. a lack of interest on the part of the public

  2. Reasons for the demise of swing did not include
    1. racism
    2. 20% Amusement Tax
    3. a rising interest in Rock 'n Roll
    4. transportation was difficult
    5. Recording ban by order of the American Federation of Musicians

  3. The musical format during the Swing Era was somewhat restrictive in the sense that
    1. arrangers were not utilized
    2. all the music was written with no room for solo improvisation
    3. it could not be appreciated by the public at large
    4. rhythm sections became stereotyped, lacking creativity
    5. black and white musicians never played together

  4. By the early 1940s most big bands sounded stylistically
    1. different
    2. complex
    3. innovative
    4. surprising (one never knew what the band was going to do next)
    5. alike

  5. The Recording Ban ran from
    1. July 1942 - November 1943
    2. April 1941 - November 1942
    3. July 1940 - October 1943
    4. August 1941 - November 1943
    5. May 1939 - November 1941

  6. Many big bands broke up because
    1. band members didn't like one another other
    2. the players resented the arrangers
    3. they were not able to record new material during the recording ban
    4. dance halls were too small to bring in enough revenue to pay the band
    5. instruments became too expensive

  7. Toward the end of the Swing Era, African American jazz musicains
    1. were rarely given the opportunity to improvise compared to their European American counterparts
    2. were generally treated less fairly than their European American counterparts
    3. witnessed no capitalizization on jazz by European Americans
    4. were generally treated more fairly than their European American counterparts
    5. were not permitted to play with European American musicians

  8. One of the reasons African Americans wanted to create their "own" music, Bebop, was because
    1. Swing music was becoming too difficult
    2. they wanted to create a music that everyone could play
    3. they were tired of always having to be creative
    4. they were tired of watching their musical innovations capitalized on by European Americans
    5. of the money they could make

  9. One of the reasons African American musicians moved away from Swing in the mid 1940s was because
    1. they wanted to write more innovative arrangements
    2. they missed playing in their hometowns
    3. they wanted to play a simpler form of music
    4. they preferred Rock 'n roll
    5. they wanted to create a music for listening and not for dancing, i.e., art music

  10. European American jazz musicians were usually paid
    1. less than their African American counterparts
    2. more than the composers
    3. more than their African American counterparts
    4. in cash only
    5. by check only

  11. The jazz music that immediately followed the Swing era was
    1. Ragtime
    2. Bebop
    3. Dixieland
    4. the Blues
    5. Free jazz

  12. Part of the philosophy behind Bebop was that it was
    1. for everyone to play
    2. for entertainment
    3. easy to understand
    4. art music
    5. a mostly European invention

  13. Bebop had the effect of removing jazz from
    1. the mainstream of popular music
    2. recording studios
    3. the small ensemble setting
    4. night clubs
    5. improvised music

  14. Bebop musicians considered themselves
    1. entertainers
    2. businessmen
    3. comedians
    4. vaudevillians
    5. artists

  15. Bebop was primarily designed as a vehicle for
    1. elaborate arranging
    2. improvisation
    3. communication between listener and audience
    4. more revenue
    5. white musicians to display their conservatory training

  16. Bebop was
    1. a European invention
    2. new culture
    3. an African American invention
    4. a routine way of approaching chord progressions
    5. considered the popular music of the mid 1940s to mid 1950s

  17. Bebop
    1. was usually performed in large ensembles
    2. was usually performed in small ensembles
    3. was carefully arranged
    4. featured only saxophone and trumpet
    5. was more polyphonic than homophonic

  18. The usual size of a Bebop combo was a (an)
    1. sextet
    2. septet
    3. duo
    4. octet
    5. quintet

  19. Two of the most common instruments in a Bebop combo were
    1. saxophone and trumpet
    2. flute and guitar
    3. piano and tuba
    4. banjo and bass
    5. trombone and clarinet

  20. Bebop utilized
    1. elaborate arrangements
    2. simple chord structures
    3. "trimmed down" arrangements
    4. complex introductions and endings
    5. simple melodies

  21. The basic format of Bebop was performance of the head, then improvised solos, then trading fours or eights, then:
    1. collective improvisation
    2. audience participation
    3. a pause for applause
    4. the last chorus, usually the"head" in unison
    5. an African ending

  22. When singers participated in Bebop they would often
    1. sing in an operatic manner
    2. leave all the improvisation to the instrumentalists
    3. never sing the original lyrics
    4. sing clearly defined words when they improvised
    5. scat sing

  23. The most important trumpet player in the Bebop Era was
    1. Wynton Marsalis
    2. Dizzy Gillespie
    3. Louis Armstrong
    4. Miles Davis
    5. Chet Baker

  24. The Harlem Renaissance was a period in which African American writers
    1. imitated classical European styles in literature
    2. focused on African American experiences in their writings
    3. abandoned realism in favor of romanticism
    4. wrote idealist novels in the style of the 17th-century English Renaissance
    5. wrote poems and novels to please white audiences

  25. Claude McKay and Billie Holiday used their talents to expose
    1. business fraud
    2. political corruption
    3. racism in America
    4. the horrors of war
    5. lavish military expenditures after World War I

Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. One of the reasons for the demise of swing was the draft of musicians into _____________________________.

  2. __________________________ and __________________________ were rationed during World War II making transportation more difficult.

  3. Bebop came about, in part, due to Swing’s __________________________ musical formats.

  4. The improvised solos during the Swing era were generally much __________________________ than those of the Bebop Era.

  5. One of the reasons for the stagnation of Swing music toward the end of the Swing Era was the use of the same kinds of basic __________________________ progressions used over and over.

  6. The Bebop Era’s dates were basically ____________ to.____________.

  7. Most big bands, by the early 40's sounded stylistically __________________________

  8. The recording ban lasted from July ____________ to November ____________.

  9. Many big bands broke up during the recording ban because they could not __________________________ new music.

  10. Becoming increasingly disenchanted with Swing music toward the end of the Swing Era, jazz’s African American innovators pioneered __________________________.

  11. While today Bebop is played by musicians of virtually every ethnicity, it was invented by _______________________________.

  12. Bebop’s primary intended purpose was for __________________________, noT For dancing.

  13. Bebop was intended to be __________________________ music, not “entertainment” music.

  14. Bebop removed jazz from the mainstream of __________________________music.

  15. Bebop musicians considered themselves __________________________, not entertainers.

  16. Bebop solos were generally more __________________________ than their Swing counterparts.

  17. The night club in Harlem famous for its jam sessions in the 1940s and its important roll in the incubation of Bebop was _______________________________.

  18. The street dubbed the Street of Bop, famous for featuring several jazz clubs was _______________________________.

  19. Bebop is designed for __________________________, not elaborate arrangements.

  20. Singing nonsense syllables in a Bebop fashion is known as __________________________ singing.

  21. A Bebop tune written utilizing the same chord progression as an extant standard is called a _______________________________.

  22. During the first chorus of a Bebop tune, the__________________________is usually played in unison.

  23. The most important alto saxophonist during the Bebop era was ______________________________.

  24. The most important trumpet player during the Bebop era was _______________________________.

  25. Geographically, Bebop was centered in _______________________________.

Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
Explain the cultural reasons for the demise of swing. How did World War II have an effect on the demise of swing? Give examples.

Essay question #2
Explain the musical reasons for the demise of swing.

Essay question #3
How did racial inequality play a part in the birth of Bebop?

Essay question #4
Explain the performance practice of Bebop and how it differs from Swing. Compare and contrast the two.

Essay question #5
How did the arts help to promote an awareness of the horrors of lynching in America? What influence does literature, art, and music have on promoting social awareness in today’s society?

Please answer true or false to the following questions.
1. One of the reasons for the demise of Swing was World War II. T F
2. Toward the end of the Swing Era transportation was easy. T F
3. Gas rationing contributed to the demise of Swing. T F
4. Compared to Bebop, Swing was generally more complex. T F
5. There were longer solo opportunities in Swing than in Bebop. T F
6. The rhythms toward the end of the Swing Era became stereotypical and lacking in creativity. T F
7. Toward the end of the Swing Era, Swing music presented many surprises in its musical presentation. T F
8. Toward the end of the Swing Era and prior to the Bebop Era, jazz had fallen into a rut. T F
9. By the early 1940's most big bands sounded stylistically different. T F
10. The recording ban went From July 1942 to November 1942. T F
11. Not being able to record new material during the recording ban, many big bands broke up. T F
12. During the Bebop Era, there was racial equality between African and European American jazz musicians. T F
13. African American musicians were usually paid the same as European American musicians. T F
14. Just prior to the Bebop Era, many African American jazz musicians became increasingly disenchanted with Swing music. T F
15. One of the reasons African American jazz musicians desired to create a new style of jazz music was because they were tired of were tired of watching their innovations capitalized upon by their European American counterparts. T F
16. Thelonious Monk played the saxophone. T F
17. Bebop had the effect of removing jazz from the mainstream of popular commercial music. T F
18. Bebop musicians considered themselves entertainers, not artists. T F
19. Bebop was a completely African American invention. T F
20. The performance practice of Bebop was primarily a large group. T F
21. Bebop was very virtuosic music, not easy to play. T F
22. Most Bebop arrangements are simple, "trimmed down" compared to Swing arrangements. T F
23. Long introductions are common in Bebop. T F
24. Billie Holiday is noted for her mellow style that meshed with the Big Band sounds during the Swing era. T F
25. Strange Fruit, popularized by Billie Holiday, was a social commentary on racism in America. T F
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. one reason for the demise of swing  

A. difficult to play  

1. _____

2. Thelonious Monk  

B. middle choruses  

2. _____

3. recording ban  

C. trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass, and drums  

3. _____

4. Kenny Clarke  

D. jazz vocalist  

4. _____

5. lynchings  

E. blues, standards, contrafacts, originals  

5. _____

6. Ella Fitzgerald  

F. World War II  

6. _____

7. Swing  

G. head played in unison  

7. _____

8. Bebop   

H. Strange Fruit  

8. _____

9. virtuosic music  

I. Afro-Cuban  

9. _____

10. famous Harlem night club  

J. Max Roach  

10. _____

11. improvised solos  

K. piano  

11. _____

12. musical conversation  

L. Bebop's main focus  

12. _____

13. midnight curfews  

M. last chorus  

13. _____

14. Bebop quintet  

N. complex  

14. _____

15. A Night in Tunisia  

O. drums  

15. _____

16. jam session  

P. scat singing  

16. _____

17. improvisation  

Q. Minton's Playhouse  

17. _____

18. first chorus  

R. non-rehearsed jazz performance  

18. _____

19. drums  

S. a music for dancing  

19. _____

20. out head in unison  

T. alto saxophone  

20. _____

21. Bebop tune sources  

U. trading fours  

21. _____

22. Bebop rhythm  

V. a music for listening  

22. _____

23. vocal improvisation using nonsense syllables  

W. trumpet  

23. _____

24. Charlie Parker  

X. July 1942 - November 1943  

24. _____

25. Dizzy Gillespie  

Y. brown outs  

25. _____

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