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  1. Dixieland came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1850 - 1875
    2. 1875 - 1900
    3. 1900 - 1925
    4. 1925 - 1950
    5. 1950 - 1975

  2. Dixieland’s primary influences included:
    1. ragtime
    2. gospel music
    3. blues
    4. military brass bands
    5. all of the above

  3. The common instrumentation of a Dixieland band was (is):
    1. trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass, drums
    2. fives saxes, four trumpets, four trombones, piano, bass, drums, and sometimes guitar
    3. organ, saxophone (or guitar), drums
    4. trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, tuba (or string bass), banjo (or guitar), drums
    5. clarinet, banjo and/or acoustic guitar, gutbucket string bass, blues harp (harmonica), washboard

  4. The primary feature of Dixieland is
    1. collective improvisation, i.e., two or more musicians improvising at the same time
    2. sophisticated arrangements
    3. each soloist improvising one at a time (in turn) with rhythm section accompaniment
    4. ragtime
    5. all of the above

  5. In a Dixieland band, the trumpet’s primary role is to
    1. play the melody
    2. add to (embellish) the melody
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  6. In a Dixieland band, the clarinet’s primary role is to
    1. play the melody
    2. add to (embellish) the melody
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  7. In a Dixieland band, the piano and banjo (or guitar’s) primary role is to
    1. play the melody
    2. add to (embellish) the melody
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  8. In a Dixieland band, the trombone’s primary role is to
    1. play the melody
    2. play the bass line
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  9. In a Dixieland band, the drummer’s primary role is to
    1. play the bass line
    2. add to (embellish) the melody
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  10. In a Dixieland band, the tuba (or string bass’) primary role is to
    1. play the melody
    2. play the bass line
    3. keep a steady beat
    4. embellish the bass line and play “afterbeats” and sound effects such as “smears” and “slides”
    5. play chords

  11. Dixieland bands (excluding piano and using tuba rather than string bass) were originally
    1. chamber orchestras
    2. small marching bands
    3. bands from England that played for tea parties
    4. country bands
    5. church choirs

  12. Besides playing for dances and parties, in the early 1900s Dixieland bands would also play for
    1. mixed marriage weddings
    2. divorces and annulments
    3. baptisms
    4. bah mitzvahs
    5. funerals

  13. The first great jazz soloist (improviser) was
    1. Duke Ellington
    2. Benny Goodman
    3. Jelly Roll Morton
    4. Louis Armstrong
    5. Count Basie

  14. Louis Armstrong played
    1. cornet and trumpet
    2. clarinet and saxophone
    3. piano
    4. tuba and string bass
    5. guitar and banjo

  15. Most early Dixieland jazz musicians were
    1. classically trained European musicians
    2. self taught European musicians
    3. classically trained African American musicians
    4. self taught African American musicians
    5. sons of preachers

  16. The first jazz record was made by
    1. Buddy Bolden
    2. Scott Joplin
    3. Louis Armstrong and King Oliver
    4. The Original Dixieland Jass Band
    5. Jelly Roll Morton

  17. The first jazz recording was entitled:
    1. Singin’ the Blues
    2. When the Saints Go Marching In
    3. Livery Stable Blues
    4. Workingman’s Blues
    5. Jelly-Roll Blues

  18. Dixieland’s first recordings were on:
    1. piano rolls
    2. 78s
    3. LPs
    4. CDs
    5. MP3s

  19. The collective improvisation of Dixieland jazz, in part, represented
    1. New Orleans worker unions’ collective bargaining agreement with the city
    2. the collection of a variety of instruments to play jazz
    3. the newfound freedom of African Americans
    4. jazz musicians’ having to pay collection agencies
    5. jazz musicians’ not having to pay collection agencies

  20. Big band swing came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1900 - 1915
    2. 1915 - 1930
    3. 1930 - 1945
    4. 1945 - 1960
    5. 1960- 1975

  21. The common instrumentation of a swing big band was (is):
    1. trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass, drums
    2. fives saxes, four trumpets, four trombones, piano, bass, drums, and sometimes guitar
    3. organ, saxophone (or guitar), drums
    4. trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, tuba (or string bass), banjo (or guitar), drums
    5. clarinet, banjo and/or acoustic guitar, gutbucket string bass, blues harp (harmonica), washboard

  22. During the Swing Era, the music played by the big bands was
    1. mostly improvised
    2. mostly written (by an arranger)
    3. equally written and improvised (approximately)
    4. neither written nor improvised
    5. collectively improvised

  23. Big band swing music was played primarily for
    1. funerals
    2. dancing
    3. church services
    4. award and other ceremonies (e.g., weddings, graduations, divorces/annulments, bah mitzvahs, etc.)
    5. background dinner music

  24. Important figure(s) of the swing era included
    1. Count Basie
    2. Duke Ellington
    3. Benny Goodman
    4. Jelly Roll Morton
    5. A, B, and C

  25. Swing served as a major morale booster during
    1. the Civil War
    2. World War I
    3. World War II
    4. the Korean War
    5. the Vietnam War

Fill in the blank with the correct answer
  1. Dixieland came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:____________________.
  2. Dixieland’s four primary musical influences included ___________________.
  3. The most common instrumentation of a Dixieland band was (is) __________________________.
  4. Besides playing for dances and parties, early 1900s Dixieland bands were known for playing for ___________________.
  5. The first great jazz soloist (improviser) was Dixieland cornet/trumpet player _________________________.
  6. Dixieland bands (excluding piano and using tuba rather than string bass) were originally small ________________________.
  7. The first jazz recording was made in 1917 by an all white band called ____________________________________________________.
  8. The first jazz recording was entitled ___________________________________________________________.
  9. The most important feature of Dixieland jazz is ______________________________________________________, that is, when two or more instrumentalists improvise at the same time.
  10. The collective improvisation of Dixieland jazz represented, in part, African Americans’ newfound _______________.
  11. Big band swing came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years _____________.
  12. The most common instrumentation of a swing big band was (is) _____________________________________.
  13. Given that there are more instruments in a big band (than in a Dixieland band) and thus require more organization, the majority of big band music is not improvised but written by a(n)________________.
  14. Big band swing music was primarily for _________________________.
  15. Jazz reached new levels of sophistication in the Swing Era as an outgrowth of America’s need for self esteem following the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great _________________________________.
  16. Swing music served as a big morale booster during what war? _________________________.
  17. The first important interracial jazz groups were led by clarinetist _____________________________, AKA the “King of Swing.”
  18. The African American cultural movement based in New York City’s Harlem from roughly 1920 to 1940 was know as the ________________________________________________.
  19. The migration of over a million African-Americans from the South to the North from 1910-1940 looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and feeling they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North was called the ______________________________________________.
  20. Jazz moved from New Orleans to Chicago to _____________________, today’s jazz capital of the world.
  21. Louis Armstrong’s nickname was ________________________________.
  22. The decade following World War I, a time of unprecedented US prosperity and optimism (as well as the decade of bath tub gin, the model T, the $5 work day, the first transatlantic flight, and “flappers”) was called the ___________________________________.
  23. A common musical device used in jazz in which one instrument (or section) plays a phrase that is then “answered” by another instrument (or section) is called ________________________________.
  24. Both Duke Ellington and Count Basie led big bands and played what instrument? __________________.
  25. Florence Mills was both a singer and a _______________________.


Write a one to two page answer.
Essay Question #1
Discuss Dixieland jazz. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

Essay question #2
Discuss big band swing music. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

Essay question #3
Describe the primary differences between Dixieland jazz and big band swing jazz.

Essay question #4
Regarding the Great Migration (1910- 1940), provide a brief overview and discuss the “push” and “pull” factors that persuaded African Americans to leave the South and head North, respectively. Did it make life better for African Americans? Why and/or why not?

Essay question #5
Regarding the Harlem Renaissance, provide a brief overview and discuss the music of the movement.

Please answer true or false to the following questions.
1. Dixieland jazz developed during the first quarter of the 20th century. T F
2. Dixieland’s influences included ragtime, blues, gospel music, and military brass bands. T F
3. The common instrumentation of a Dixieland jazz band is 5 saxes, 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, and 4 rhythm. T F
4. The primary feature of Dixieland is jazz improvisation, one soloist after another. T F
5. Dixieland bands played for funerals. T F
6. The first great jazz soloist was cornet/trumpet player Benny Goodman. T F
7. Most early jazz (Dixieland) musicians were African American. T F
8. The first jazz recording was made in 1917 by an all white group called the Original Dixieland Jass Band T F
9. The first jazz recording was entitled “Livery Stable Blues.” T F
10. Most early jazz recordings were made on hard plastic (shellac) records called LPs. T F
11. Bix Beiderbecke was a white Dixieland jazz trumpeter playing and recording around 1925. T F
12. Big band swing was at the forefront of jazz and underwent its most concentrated growth and development from 1930 – 1945. T F
13. The Swing Era is also known as the Big Band Era since the number of instruments in these bands was considerably higher than those during the previous Dixieland era. T F
14. The instrumentation of a typical band in the Swing Era was trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, bass, guitar, and drums. T F
15. Since most of the jazz in the Swing Era was more complex than that of the previous Dixieland Era, and because Swing utilized more instruments, more pre-performance organization was required and thus most of the music was not improvised but written ahead of time by an “arranger” who “arranged” the music. T F
16. Big band swing music was played for funerals. T F
17. Call and response was (is) a musical device in which instruments “converse” with one another. T F
18. Duke Ellington and Count Basie are two of the most important musicians of the Dixieland Era. T F
19. After the Stock Market Crash of 1929, swing helped the country through the Great Depression, creating escape from economic realities via swing dancing. T F
20. Swing served as a major morale booster during World War I. T F
21. In an era (i.e., the Swing Era) in which racial integration was not accepted by American society in general, jazz’s social liberalism was represented by racial integration in several groups led by jazz clarinetist Benny Goodman. T F
22. The African American cultural movement based in New York City’s Harlem from roughly 1920 to 1940 was know as the Harlem Globetrotters. T F
23. Jazz was (and remains) a symbol of urban American energy, optimism, and resilience. T F
24. The decade following World War I, a time of unprecedented US prosperity and optimism (as well as the decade of bath tub gin, the model T, the $5 work day, the first transatlantic flight, and “flappers”) was called the Roaring Twenties and the Jazz Age. T F
25. The migration of over a million African-Americans from the South to the North (1910-1940) looking to escape racism in the South and seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North was called the Great Migration. T F
Match the words in the columns correctly.

1. Dixieland influences  

A. Original Dixieland Jass Band  

1. _____

2. Dixieland horn instrumentation  

B. Jazz Age  

2. _____

3. Dixieland rhythm section  

C. call and response  

3. _____

4. Dixieland band gig  

D. dance music  

4. _____

5. Dixieland's primary feature  

E. piano, bass, guitar, drums  

5. _____

6. African American community in New York  

F. better jobs and a better life  

6. _____

7. first jazz recording  

G. the Great Migration  

7. _____

8. writer of big band music  

H. singer and dancer  

8. _____

9. brittle shellac record  

I. ragtime, gospel music, blues, marching bands  

9. _____

10. Roaring Twenties  

J. racism and failing crops  

10. _____

11. African American cultural movement circa 1925  

K. 1900 - 1928  

11. _____

12. big band horn instrumentation  

L. 1930 - 1945  

12. _____

13. big band rhythm section  

M. funeral  

13. _____

14. big band swing music  

N. arranger  

14. _____

15. musical conversing; musical ask and answer  

O. collective improvisation  

15. _____

16. Great Migration pull factors  

P. Harlem  

16. _____

17. Great Migration push factors   

Q. trumpet, clarinet, trombone  

17. _____

18. African American migration to the North circa 1925  

R. 78  

18. _____

19. Dixieland Era (dates)  

S. Satchmo, Pops  

19. _____

20. Swing Era (dates)  

T. Harlem Renaissance  

20. _____

21. Florence Mills  

U. piano, tuba (or string bass), banjo, drums  

21. _____

22. Benny Goodman  

V. 5 saxes, 4 trumpets, 4 trombones  

22. _____

23. Count Basie  

W. first interracial jazz group bandleader  

23. _____

24. Louis Armstrong  

X. white Dixieland trumpeter  

24. _____

25. Bix Beiderbecke  

Y. Swing Era pianist and big band leader  

25. _____

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