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  1. Bebop came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1895 - 1910
    2. 1910 - 1925
    3. 1925 - 1940
    4. 1940 - 1955
    5. 1955 - 1970

  2. Bebop was primarily played by:
    1. Dixieland bands
    2. big bands
    3. small groups (e.g., quartets, quintets)
    4. ragtime pianists
    5. all of the above

  3. The common instrumentation of a bebop ensemble was (is):
    1. trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass, drums
    2. fives saxes, four trumpets, four trombones, piano, bass, drums, and sometimes guitar
    3. organ, saxophone (or guitar), drums
    4. trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, tuba (or string bass), banjo (or guitar), drums
    5. clarinet, banjo and/or acoustic guitar, gutbucket string bass, blues harp (harmonica), washboard

  4. In bebop, the primary focus is on
    1. collective improvisation, i.e., two or more musicians soloing at the same time
    2. elaborate arrangements
    3. each soloist improvising one at a time (in turn) with rhythm section accompaniment
    4. ragtime
    5. all of the above

  5. The basic performance practice of a bebop ensemble was (is)
    1. collective improvisation, i.e., everyone soloing at the same time
    2. written arrangements with short improvised solos interspersed
    3. the head played in unison by the horns for the first and last chorus with a lot of improvised solos in between
    4. the head played by trumpet with clarinet melodic embellishment and trombone “afterbeats” and sound effects (such as “smears” and “slides”)
    5. all of the above

  6. An informal, non-rehearsed gatherings of musicians in which they play together, challenge each other (who can “outplay” whom), and learn from each other is called a(n)
    1. gig
    2. rehearsal
    3. engagement
    4. speakeasy
    5. jam session

  7. One of the most famous bebop jam session spots was
    1. Birdland (on Broadway, a few blocks west of 52nd Street in New York)
    2. Minton’s Playhouse (in Harlem)
    3. The Blackhawk (in San Francisco)
    4. Catalina’s (in Los Angeles)
    5. The Village Vanguard (in Greenwich Village in New York)

  8. Compared to Swing,
    1. bebop harmonies (chords) are more complex  
    2. bebop tempos are often much faster than Swing tempos
    3. bebop heads are more intricate and difficult to play than most Swing melodies
    4. bebop musicians improvise far more complex solos than those of the Swing Era
    5. all the above

  9. Which of the following is most correct?
    1. Neither big band swing nor bebop was considered art music.
    2. Whereas big band swing was considered art music, bebop was considered entertainment (i.e., dance music).
    3. Whereas big band swing was considered entertainment (i.e., dance music), bebop was considered art music.
    4. Both big band swing and bebop were considered entertainment.
    5. Both big band swing and bebop were considered art music.

  10. The two most important bebop musicians, i.e., the primary architects of the bebop style, were
    1. Louis Armstrong and Bix Beiderbecke
    2. Count Basie and Duke Ellington
    3. Benny Goodman and Fletcher Henderson
    4. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie
    5. Miles Davis and John Coltrane

  11. Charlie Parker’s nickname was
    1. Bird
    2. Satchmo
    3. Dizzy
    4. Chuck
    5. Pops

  12. The type of singing in which the vocalist imitates the style of bebop jazz solos (as played by instrumentalists) using nonsense syllables is called
    1. vocalise
    2. song improvisation
    3. scat singing
    4. vocal bebopping
    5. vocal jazz

  13. The most important scat singer of the bebop era was
    1. Diana Krall
    2. Ella Fitzgerald
    3. Charlie Parker
    4. Billie Holiday
    5. Dizzy Gillespie

  14. The demise of the Swing Era big bands was, in part, due to
    1. the World War II draft, i.e., many jazz musicians were called to war
    2. bands “raiding” each other, i.e., with so few musicians left at home during World War II, band leaders “stole” musicians from other bands, offering them a slightly better deal (e.g., more money); bands that were intact before the War were depleted
    3. midnight curfews (called “brown-outs”) during the World War II years that limited the amount of engagements (gigs) that bands could get
    4. the fact that during World War II, transportation to reach night spots outside city limits was difficult due to gas shortages (gas rationing), tire shortages (rubber rationing), and the dismantling of urban and interurban railways
    5. all of the above

  15. Bebop reflected the culture of the times; like the African American experience at the time, the music
    1. was difficult
    2. alluded to the blues
    3. explored new directions and uncharted territory
    4. was separate from the mainstream of America
    5. all of the above

  16. Cool Jazz came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1942 - 1948
    2. 1949 - 1955
    3. 1956 - 1962
    4. 1963 - 1969
    5. 1970 - 1976

  17. Whereas bebop was “hot,” i.e., loud, exciting, and loose, cool jazz was “cool,” meaning it was
    1. usually softer than bebop
    2. usually “more reserved” than bebop
    3. usually more controlled than bebop
    4. hipper than bebop
    5. A, B, and C

  18. Cool Jazz groups
    1. ranged in size from trios to nonets (nine-piece band)
    2. blended jazz elements with classical music elements
    3. used more written arrangements than bebop
    4. all of the above
    5. A and B

  19. The artist who recorded the landmark album, Birth of the Cool, was trumpeter
    1. Dave Brubeck
    2. Gerry Mulligan
    3. Chet Baker
    4. Miles Davis
    5. Dizzy Gillespie

  20. During the Cool Jazz era, cool jazz reflected American culture including the fact that
    1. “keeping cool” was an expression of emotional self-control in times of crisis that was found in American street slang as well as in the language of army test pilots
    2. after many labor strikes, Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act, mandating a “cooling off period” in labor disputes
    3. America’s top choice of entertainment had “cooled down” from the nightclubs, dance halls, amusement parks, vaudeville, etc. of prior generations to television featuring shows about simple suburban life (e.g., Leave It To Beaver)
    4. due to the newly developed weapon of mass destruction, the atomic bomb, cool thinking was required at this crucial point in history
    5. all of the above

  21. Hard Bop came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years:
    1. 1951 - 1958
    2. 1959 - 1966
    3. 1967 - 1974
    4. 1975 - 1982
    5. 1983 - 1990

  22. The two factions (subsets) of hard bop were (are)
    1. free jazz and fusion
    2. big bands and combos
    3. ragtime and Dixieland
    4. mainstream and funky jazz
    5. bebop and swing

  23. One of the most important Hard Bop groups in jazz history was the
    1. Dave Brubeck Quartet
    2. Modern Jazz Quartet
    3. Miles Davis Quintet (1950s version)
    4. Miles Davis Quintet (1960s version)
    5. Benny Goodman Sextet
  24. Which of the following jazz artists is NOT associated with Hard Bop?
    1. Cannonball Adderley
    2. Art Blakey
    3. Dave Brubeck
    4. John Coltrane
    5. Miles Davis
  25. In general,
    1. Cool Jazz was more “West Coast” and Hard Bop was more “East Coast”
    2. Cool Jazz was more “East Coast” and Hard Bop was more “West Coast”
    3. Cool Jazz reflected the fast-paced, driving, complex New York lifestyle
    4. Hard Bop reflected the image of casual, laid back California suburbia
    5. Hard Bop was more popular than Cool Jazz

    Fill in the blank with the correct answer
    1. Bebop came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years: ______________________.
    2. A typical bebop combo is comprised of (instrumentation)_________________________________.
    3. Whereas in Big Band Swing the focus is on the arrangement and the playing of the ensemble, in bebop the focus is on the _________________________________.
    4. The basic format of a bebop tune performance is ___________________________________.
    5. An informal, non-rehearsed gathering of jazz musicians in which they play together, challenge each other (who can “outplay” whom), and learn from each other is called a(n)__________________________.
    6. The most famous bebop jam session spot in the 1940s was a nightclub in Harlem called _______________________________________.
    7. Whereas Big Band Swing was considered entertainment (i.e., dance music), bebop was considered _______________________.
    8. The two most important bebop musicians, i.e., the primary architects of the bebop style, were ___________________________.
    9. “Bird” was the nickname of what bebop musician? _______________.
    10. The type of jazz singing in which the vocalist improvises in the style of bebop jazz solos (as played by instrumentalists) using nonsense syllables is called __________________.
    11. The most important scat singer of the bebop era was female vocalist ___________________.
    12. Compared to Swing, bebop harmonies (chords) and improvised solos were more ___________________.
    13. The demise of the Swing Era big bands was, in part, due to what war? ________________________________.
    14. Cool Jazz came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years: ____________________.
    15. Compared to bebop jazz which was (is) “hot,” i.e., loud, exciting, and loose, Cool jazz was (is) “ __________________,” that is, _________________________.
    16. Cool jazz combos ranged in size from ____ pieces to _______. pieces.
    17. The instrumentation of the Miles Davis Nonet consisted of _______________________________________________.
    18. Cool jazz was a blending of jazz and _______________________________________.
    19. Cool jazz often included _______________________, that is, two or more melodic lines occurring at the same time.
    20. One of the first and most important Cool Jazz artists was trumpeter _________________________ who recorded the landmark album, Birth of the Cool.
    21. The innovative Cool Jazz artist who brought jazz to college campuses and recorded the first million-selling jazz hit “Take Five” was pianist ___________________________________.
    22. Hard Bop came to the forefront of jazz and experienced its most concentrated development in the years: __________________.
    23. The two factions (subsets) of hard bop were (are) _________________________.
    24. Geographically speaking, Hard Bop was more ___________ Coast while Cool Jazz was more ___________ Coast.
    25. One of the most important Hard Bop jazz drummers was ______________________, whose group entitled the “Jazz Messengers” was the breeding ground for many of the greatest jazz musicians from the 1950s to today.


  26. Write a one to two page answer.
    Essay Question #1
    Discuss Bebop. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

    Essay question #2
    Discuss Cool Jazz. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

    Essay question #3
    Describe the primary differences between Bebop and Cool Jazz.

    Essay question #4
    Discuss Hard Bop, including its two factions (subsets): mainstream and funky jazz. Include key dates, instrumentation, performance practices, key figures, and cultural implications.

    Essay question #5
    Discuss how the Great Depression, World War II, and the Post-War Period (1929-1949) effected Americans in general and African Americans in particular. How did these events effect jazz?

    Please answer true or false to the following questions.
    1. Bebop was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1940 – 1955. T F
    2. Bebop was (is) primarily played by big bands. T F
    3. Whereas in Big Band Swing the focus was (is)on the soloist, in Bebop the focus was (is) on the arrangement and the playing of the ensemble. T F
    4. The basic format for the performance of a bebop tune is: head played in unison by the horns for the first and last chorus with a lot of improvised solos in between. T F
    5. Informal, non-rehearsed gatherings of musicians where they play together, challenge each other (who can “outplay” whom), and learn from each other are called club dates. T F
    6. For the most part, Bebop was (is) far more musically complex than its Big Band Swing counterpart. T F
    7. Whereas Big Band Swing was considered entertainment (i.e., dance music), bebop was considered art music. T F
    8. The two most important bebop musicians were Dave Brubeck and Miles Davis. T F
    9. Charlie Parker’s nickname was “Bird.” T F
    10. The demise of the Swing Era big bands was, in part, due to World War II. T F
    11. Racism and segregation were rampant in America during the Swing and Bebop eras. T F
    12. Bebop came about in part because many African American jazz musicians became increasingly disenchanted with Swing music the more they watched European Americans capitalize on it; they wanted to create their “own” music, a music that was not for dancing but for listening: a true African American art form. T F
    13. Cool Jazz was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1949 – 1955. T F
    14. Whereas bebop was “hot,” i.e., loud, exciting, and loose, cool jazz was “cool,” i.e., soft, more reserved, and controlled. T F
    15. “Classical” instruments such as flute, French horn, tuba, and vibraphone (vibes) were often found in Cool Jazz groups. T F
    16. Cool Jazz was Afro-centric, blending Negro spirituals, blues, gospel music, and rhythm and blues (R&B). T F
    17. Unlike Bebop, much of Cool Jazz was arranged (written) ahead of time. T F
    18. One of the first and most important Cool Jazz artists was trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie who recorded the landmark album Birth of the Cool. T F
    19. Cool Jazz pianist Art Blakey was instrumental in bringing jazz to college campuses in the 1950s, and recording the jazz mega-hit, “Take Five.” T F
    20. Bebop and Hard Bop were associated with the West Coast (e.g., California); Cool jazz was associated with the East Coast. T F
    21. Hard Bop was at the forefront of jazz and went through its most concentrated growth and development from 1951 – 1958. T F
    22. Hard Bop was, in part, a reaction to Cool Jazz in that many jazz musicians felt that with cool jazz, the music had become too “classical” in nature, that is, too European (not enough “blues”). T F
    23. The two factions (subsets) of Hard Bop were (are) Mainstream and Free Jazz. T F
    24. Hard Bop, in part, was a means of artistic expression by young African American men to demonstrate their dissatisfaction with the social, political, and economic climate of America in the 1950s, i.e., segregation and lack of economic equity. T F
    25. The Miles Davis Quintet of the 1950s was one of the most important Cool Jazz groups in jazz history. T F
    Match the words in the columns correctly.

    1. Bebop (dates)  

    A. Bebop architect  

    1. _____

    2. Bebop combo typical instrumentation  

    B. famous scat singer  

    2. _____

    3. Bebop tune performance format  

    C. "hot", i.e., loud, exciting, and loose  

    3. _____

    4. informal performance gathering of jazz musicians  

    D. 1949 - 1955  

    4. _____

    5. famous 1940s Harlem jam session nightclub  

    E. Hard Bop drummer; leader of the Jazz Messengers  

    5. _____

    6. Big Band Swing vs. Bebop  

    F. blending of jazz and classical music  

    6. _____

    7. Cool Jazz vs. Hard Bop  

    G. Modern Jazz Quartet  

    7. _____

    8. Bebop vocal jazz improvisation  

    H. West Coast vs. East Coast  

    8. _____

    9. facets (subsets) of Hard Bop  

    I. trumpet, saxophone, piano, bass, drums  

    9. _____

    10. Great Depression (dates)  

    J. 1951 - 1958  

    10. _____

    11. Cool Jazz (dates)  

    K. 1940 - 1955  

    11. _____

    12. Bebop "vibe"  

    L. California  

    12. _____

    13. Cool Jazz "recipe"  

    M. Cool Jazz pianist; recorded "Take Five"  

    13. _____

    14. primary Hard Bop geographical location  

    N. entertainment vs. art music  

    14. _____

    15. primary Cool Jazz geographical location  

    O. New York  

    15. _____

    16. two melodic lines occurring simultaneously  

    P. Mainstream and Funky Jazz  

    16. _____

    17. World War II (dates)  

    Q. jam session  

    17. _____

    18. famous Cool Jazz group  

    R. scat singing  

    18. _____

    19. famous Hard Bop group  

    S. 1929 - 1940  

    19. _____

    20. Hard Bop (dates)  

    T. head - improvised solos - head  

    20. _____

    21. Dave Brubeck  

    U. 1941 - 1945  

    21. _____

    22. Miles Davis  

    V. Miles Davis Quintet (1950s version)  

    22. _____

    23. Ella Fitzgerald  

    W. Minton's Playhouse  

    23. _____

    24. Charlie Parker  

    X. counterpoint  

    24. _____

    25. Art Blakey  

    Y. Cool Jazz and Hard Bop trumpeter  

    25. _____

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